What is not Copyrightable?

While most printed material and music is readily recognized as copyrighted the following do not enjoy copyright protection:

  1. Ideas
  2. Facts
  3. Works for which copyright has expired
  4. Government publications of official texts of a legislative nature
  5. Political speeches
  6. Blank Forms
  7. Words (Slogans are protected by Trademark laws)
  8. Verbal presentations where no “fixation” on a medium is done

Any tangible, original form of expression can be copyrighted. Thus theses, as in the case of books (and e-books), have copyright protection as are papers written for conferences (the verbal presentation, if it is not fixed on a recordable medium such as audio / videotapes, may not be copyrighted), journals or chapters in books.