INRL 6012

INRL 6012


Lecturer: Dr. Michelle Scobie



RESOURCES- TEXTS (More will be suggested for each topic, please see the reading list)

1. Biermann, Frank, Bernd Siebenhüner, and Anna Schreyögg. 2009. International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance. Taylor & Francis. View online: Click here
2. Chasek, Pamela S, Downie, and Janet Welsh Brown. 2010. Global Environmental Politics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. View online: Click here
3. Conca, Ken, and Geoffrey D Dabelko. 2010. Green Planet Blues Four Decades of Global Environmental Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
4. Dauvergne, Peter. 2005. Handbook of Global Environmental Politics. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: E. Elgar. View online: Click here
5. Díez, Jordi, Dwivedi, O. P. 2008. Global Environmental Challenges: Perspectives from the South. Peterborough [u.a.: Broadview Press.
6. Dryzek, John S, Norgaard, and Schlosberg. 2011. Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Oxford, U.K.; New York: Oxford University Press. View online: Click here
7. Ludwig, Kathrin, and Marcel TJ Kok. 2018. Exploring new dynamics in global environmental governance – literature review. The Hague: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. View TOC: Click here
8. Mitchell, Ronald B. 2010. International Politics and the Environment. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
9. Scobie, Michelle. 2019. Global Environmental Governance and small states: architectures and agency in the Caribbean. Edited by Arthur P.J. Mol, New Horizons in Environmental Politics. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.






1. Nature and theories of Global Environmental Governance

  1. Earth System Governance Project. 2018. Earth System Governance Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project. Edited by Earth System Governance Project. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Earth System Governance Project.

  2. Hayha, Tiina, Paul L. Lucas, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Sarah E. Cornell, and Holger Hoff. 2016. "From Planetary Boundaries to national fair shares of the global safe operating space - How can the scales be bridged?" Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 40:60-72. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.008. Click here

  3. IISD, International Social Science Council. 2016. World Social Science Report 2016. Challenging Inequalities: Pathways to a Just World, World Social Science Report. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Click here

  4. Stevens, Casey, and Norichika Kanie. 2016. "The transformative potential of the Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs)." International Environmental Agreements : Politics, Law and Economics 16 (3):393-396. doi: 10.1007/s10784-016-9324-y. Click here


2. Regimes of Global Environmental Governance

  1. Gough, Ian. 2016. "Welfare states and environmental states: a comparative analysis." Environmental Politics 25 (1):24-47. doi: 10.1080/09644016.2015.1074382. Click here

  2. Ludwig, Kathrin, and Marcel TJ Kok. 2018. Exploring new dynamics in global environmental governance – literature review. The Hague: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Click here

  3. Patterson, J., K. Schulz, J. Vervoort, S. van der Hel, O. Widerberg, C. Adler, M. Hurlbert, K. Anderton, M. Sethi, and A. Barau. 2017. "Exploring the governance and politics of transformations towards sustainability." Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 24:1-16. doi: 10.1016/j.eist.2016.09.001. Click here

  4. UN. 2016. Sustainable development of the Caribbean Sea for present and future generations: Report of the Secretary-General. In Sustainable development: follow-up to and implementation of the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway and the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. New York: UN General Assembly. Click here

  5. UNESCO. 2016. Small Island Developing States – UNESCO’s Action Plan. edited by Section on Small Islands and Indigenous Knowledge Division of Science Policy and Capacity Building. Paris, France: UNESCO. Click here

  6. Scobie M. Regional Climate Governance. In: Farazmand A, ed. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer International Publishing; 2016:1-7. View Online: Click here

  7. Biermann F, Kim RE, Abbott KW, Hollway J, Mitchell RB, Scobie M. Taking Stock and Moving Forward. In: Biermann F, Kim RE, editors. Architectures of Earth System Governance: Institutional Complexity and Structural Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2020, p. 299-321.

3. International Environmental Agreements

  1. Ardron, Jeff A. 2016. "Transparency in the operations of the International Seabed Authority: An initial assessment." Marine Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.06.027. Click here

  2. Bigagli, Emanuele. 2016. "The international legal framework for the management of the global oceans social-ecological system." Marine Policy 68 (Supplement C):155-164. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.03.005. Click here

  3. Boas, I., F. Biermann, and N. Kanie. 2016. "Cross-sectoral strategies in global sustainability governance: towards a nexus approach." International Environmental Agreements-Politics Law and Economics 16 (3):449-464. doi: 10.1007/s10784-016-9321-1. Click here

  4. Bohmelt, T., and G. Spilker. 2016. "The interaction of international institutions from a social network perspective." International Environmental Agreements-Politics Law and Economics 16 (1):67-89. doi: 10.1007/s10784-014-9248-3. Click here

  5. Giljam, Renske A 2017. "Extended application of ‘best available techniques’ as a means to facilitate ecological governance." Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law. doi: 10.1080/02646811.2017.1327266. Click here

  6. Grip, K. 2017. "International marine environmental governance: A review." Ambio 46 (4):413-427. doi: 10.1007/s13280-016-0847-9. Click here

  7. Hosch, Gilles 2016. Trade Measures to Combat IUU Fishing: Comparative Analysis of Unilateral and Multilateral Approaches. Geneva, Switzerland: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD). Click here

  8. Lövbrand, Eva, Mattias Hjerpe, and Björn-Ola Linnér. 2017. "Making climate governance global: how UN climate summitry comes to matter in a complex climate regime." Environmental Politics 26 (4):580-599. doi: 10.1080/09644016.2017.1319019. Click here


4. Sustainable Development, the Green Economy and International Law

  1. Khor, Martin. 2011. Risks and uses of the green economy concept in the context of sustainable development, poverty and equity: South Centre. Click here

  2. Leach, Melissa, Belinda Reyers, Xuemei Bai, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Christina Cook, Sandra Díaz, Giovana Espindola, Michelle Scobie, Mark Stafford-Smith, and Suneetha M. Subramanian. 2018. "Equity and sustainability in the Anthropocene: a social–ecological systems perspective on their intertwined futures." Global Sustainability 1:e13. doi: 10.1017/sus.2018.12. Click here

  3. Lederer, Markus, Linda Wallbott, and Steffen Bauer. 2018. "Tracing Sustainability Transformations and Drivers of Green Economy Approaches in the Global South." The Journal of Environment & Development 27 (1):3-25. doi: 10.1177/1070496517747661.

  4. United Nations Environment Programme. 2011. Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. Edited by UNEP. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Click here

  5. United Nations. 2018. Review of Partnerships for Small Island Developing States New York: United Nations,. Click here

  6. World Bank, and United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2017. The Potential of the Blue Economy: Increasing Long-term Benefits of the Sustainable Use of Marine Resources for Small Island Developing States and Coastal Least Developed Countries. World Bank, Washington, DC: World Bank. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Click here


5. Environmental Justice

  1. Bettini, G., S. L. Nash, and G. Gioli. 2017. "One step forward, two steps back? The fading contours of (in)justice in competing discourses on climate migration." Geographical Journal 183 (4):348-358. doi: 10.1111/geoj.12192. Click here

  2. Bourrel, Marie, Torsten Thiele, and Duncan Currie. 2016. "The common of heritage of mankind as a means to assess and advance equity in deep sea mining." Marine Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.07.017. Click here

  3. Cano Pecharroman, Lidia. 2018. "Rights of Nature: Rivers That Can Stand in Court." Resources 7 (1):13. Click here

  4. Davies, Kirsten, Sam Adelman, Anna Grear, Catherine Iorns Magallanes, Tom Kerns, and S Ravi Rajan. 2017. "The Declaration on Human Rights and Climate Change: a new legal tool for global policy change." 8 (2):217. doi: Click here

  5. Hoad, Darren. 2016. "The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement: outcomes and their impacts on small island states." Island Studies Journal 11 (1):315-320. Click here

  6. IISD, International Social Science Council. 2016. World Social Science Report 2016. Challenging Inequalities: Pathways to a Just World, World Social Science Report. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Click here

  7. Jenkins, Kirsten, Darren McCauley, Raphael Heffron, Hannes Stephan, and Robert Rehner. 2016. "Energy justice: A conceptual review." Energy Research & Social Science 11:174-182. doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2015.10.004. Click here

  8. Kalfagianni A, Gerlak AK, Olsson L, Scobie M. Justice. In: Kalfagianni A, Hayden A, editors. Routledge Handbook of Global Sustainability Governance. UK: Taylor & Francis Group; 2020, p. 75-90.

  9. Lowitt, Kristen, Arlette Ville, Patsy Lewis, and Gordon Hickey. 2015. "Environmental change and food security: the special case of small island developing states." Regional Environmental Change 15:1293-1298. doi: 10.1007/s10113-015-0849-3. Click here

  10. Popke, Jeff, Scott Curtis, and Douglas W. Gamble. 2016. "A social justice framing of climate change discourse and policy: Adaptation, resilience and vulnerability in a Jamaican agricultural landscape." Geoforum 73:70-80. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.11.003. Click here

  11. Salako, Solomon E. 2017. "Climate Change, Environmental Security and Global Justice." International Law Research 6 (1):119. doi: 10.5539/ilr.v6n1p119. Click here

  12. Smith, Rose-Ann J., and Kevon Rhiney. 2016. "Climate (in)justice, vulnerability and livelihoods in the Caribbean: The case of the indigenous Caribs in northeastern St. Vincent." Geoforum 73:22-31. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.11.008. Click here

  13. Sultan, Riad. 2016. Assessing the Climate CHange-Migration Nexus through the lens of migrants- The case of the Republic of Mauritius, Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration. Click here

6. Actors in Global Environmental Politics -Science/Policy Interface

  1. Boyd, David. 2018. "Recognizing the Rights of Nature: Lofty Rhetoric or Legal Revolution?" Natural Resources & Environment 32 (4):13-17. (Available on Ebscohost, ask library staff for assistance)

  2. Cano Pecharroman, Lidia. 2018. "Rights of Nature: Rivers That Can Stand in Court." Resources 7 (1):13. Click here

  3. Chan, Sander, Paula Ellinger, and Oscar Widerberg. 2018. "Exploring national and regional orchestration of non-state action for a < 1.5 °C world." International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 18 (1):135-152. doi: 10.1007/s10784-018-9384-2. Click here

  4. Duit, Andreas, Peter H Feindt, and James Meadowcroft. 2016. "Greening Leviathan: the rise of the environmental state?" Environmental Politics 25 (1):1-23. Click here

  5. Kuyper, Jonathan W., Björn-Ola Linnér, and Heike Schroeder. 2018. "Non-state actors in hybrid global climate governance: justice, legitimacy, and effectiveness in a post-Paris era." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 9 (1):e497. doi: 10.1002/wcc.497. Click here

  6. Pattberg, Philipp, and Oscar Widerberg. 2016. "Transnational multistakeholder partnerships for sustainable development: Conditions for success." Ambio 45 (1):42-51. doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0684-2. Click here

  7. Scobie, Michelle. 2018. "Actors, Frames and Contexts in Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform." In The Politics of Fossil Fuel Subsidies and their Reform, edited by Harro van Asselt and Jakob Skovgaard, 283-302. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Click here

  8. Viñuales, Jorge E. . 2016. "Foreign Investment and the Environment in International Law: The Current State of Play." In Research Handbook on Environment and Investment Law, edited by Kate Miles. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Click here


7. Non-State Regulation and Certification Systems

  1. Scobie, Michelle 2017. Accountability in Tourism Governance. In Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance: Springer International Publishing. Click here

  2. Sullivan, Rory, and Andy Gouldson. 2017. "The Governance of Corporate Responses to Climate Change: An International Comparison." Business Strategy and the Environment 26 (4):413-425. doi: 10.1002/bse.1925. Click here

  3. Wilson, Marisa. 2016. "Food and nutrition security policies in the Caribbean: Challenging the corporate food regime?" Geoforum 73:60-69. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.05.005. Click here


8. Evaluating the effectiveness of International and Regional Environmental Institutions

  1. Okereke, Chukwumerije. 2017. "A six-component model for assessing procedural fairness in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)." Climatic Change 145 (3-4):509-522. doi: 10.1007/s10584-017-2106-x. Click here

  2. Robinson, Stacy-Ann, and Daniel Gilfillan. 2016. "Regional organisations and climate change adaptation in small island developing states." Regional Environmental Change 17 (4):989-1004. doi: 10.1007/s10113-016-0991-6. Click here

  3. Scobie, Michelle. 2016. "Policy coherence in climate governance in Caribbean Small Island Developing States." Environmental Science & Policy 58:16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2015.12.008.

  4. Scobie, Michelle. 2017. "Accountability in climate change governance and Caribbean SIDS." Environment, Development and Sustainability 20 (2):769-787. doi: 10.1007/s10668-017-9909-9. Click here

  5. Smyth, Stuart J. 2017. "Genetically modified crops, regulatory delays, and international trade." Food and Energy Security 6 (2):78-86. doi: 10.1002/fes3.100. Click here

  6. Soares Peres, Ana. 2017. "Negotiating Agriculture in the World Trade Organization: Food Security as a Non- Trade Concern." Revista de Direito Internacional 14 (1). doi: 10.5102/rdi.v14i1.4368. Click here

  7. Wells, Sue, G. Carleton Ray, Kristina M. Gjerde, Alan T. White, Nyawira Muthiga, Juan E. Bezaury Creel, Billy D. Causey, Jerry McCormick-Ray, Rod Salm, Sue Gubbay, Graeme Kelleher, and Joe Reti. 2016. "Building the future of MPAs - lessons from history." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26:101-125. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2680. Click here


9. Areas and Causes of Environmental Degradation

 Climate change, desertification, water, forests, Tourism and Environmental Governance

  1. Brand-Correa, Lina I., and Julia K. Steinberger. 2017. "A Framework for Decoupling Human Need Satisfaction From Energy Use." Ecological Economics 141:43-52. doi:

  2. Dornan, Matthew, and Kalim U. Shah. 2016. "Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States." Energy Policy 98:759-767. doi Click here

  3. Gewirtzman, Jonathan, Sujay Natson, Julie-Anne Richards, Victoria Hoffmeister, Alexis Durand, Romain Weikmans, Saleemul Huq, and J. Timmons Roberts. 2018. "Financing loss and damage: reviewing options under the Warsaw International Mechanism." Climate Policy 18 (8):1076-1086. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2018.1450724. Click here

  4. Hutton, Guy, and Claire Chase. 2016. "The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene." International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health 13 (6). doi: 10.3390/ijerph13060536. Click here

  5. IRENA. 2017. Untapped Potential for Climate Action Renewable Energy in Nationally Determined Contributions. Abu Dhabi.: International Renewable Energy Agency. Click here

  6. Nakhooda, Smita, Marigold Norman, Merylyn Hedger, Alice Caravani, Romilly Greenhill, Sam Barnard, Nella Canales Trujillo, Shelagh Whitley, and Charlene Watson. 2014. Climate finance: is it making a difference?: a review of the effectiveness of multilateral climate funds. London UK: Overseas Development Institute. Click here

  7. Roberts, Erin, and Mark Pelling. 2016. Climate change-related loss and damage: translating the global policy agenda for national policy processes. Click here

  8. Scobie, Michelle. 2017. "Fossil fuel reform in developing states: The case of Trinidad and Tobago, a petroleum producing small Island developing State." Energy Policy 104 (3):265-273. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2017.02.008.

  9. Timilsina, Govinda R., and Kalim U. Shah. 2016. "Filling the gaps: Policy supports and interventions for scaling up renewable energy development in Small Island Developing States." Energy Policy 98:653-662. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.02.028. Click here

  10. Zervaki, Antonia. 2016. "Marine World Heritage and the Quest for Sustainability." Laws 5 (1):7. doi: 10.3390/laws5010007. Click here


 Marine Pollution, Regional Seas and Global Environmental Governance, Biodiversity, governance of wastes

  1. Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism. 2015. CRFM Contributes to Landmark ITLOS Case 21 on IUU Fishing. In CRFM Today's News, edited by CRFM Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism. Belize City, Belize: CRFM Secretariat, Belize City, Belize. Click here

  2. Castro, Lorena Jaramillo. 2017. 20 years of BioTrade: Connecting people, the planet and markets. Geneva, Switzerland: UNCTAD. Click here

  3. CRFM. 2017. Final Technical Report: Technical support to promote the adoption of comprehensive model legislation, protocols, guidelines for health and food safety related to fisheries and aquaculture in CARIFORUM States. In CRFM Technical & Advisory Document. Belize and St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism Secretariat. Click here

  4. Greenpeace. 1991. "Transboundary movement of hazardous and nuclear wastes in the wider caribbean region-a call for a legal instrument within the Cartagena convention." In Caribbean Environment Program Technical report, edited by Jim Puckett and Sergio Lopez Ayllon, 51. Kingston, Jamaica: Greenpeace. Click here

  5. Harden-Davies, Harriet. 2017. "Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction." Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. doi: Click here

  6. Hassanali, Kahlil. 2018. "Approaching the implementing agreement to UNCLOS on biodiversity in ABNJ: Exploring favorable outcomes for CARICOM." Marine Policy 98:92-96.

  7. Jewell, Catherine. 2017. "Breathing new life into Trinidad and Tobago’s cocoa sector." WIPO Magazine, 2017, 28-34.

  8. Leary, David. 2019. "Agreeing to disagree on what we have or have not agreed on: The current state of play of the BBNJ negotiations on the status of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction." Marine Policy 99:21-29. doi:

  9. Lojenga, Rik Kutsch 2017. "BioTrade: A market driver for sustainable development Harvesting allanblackia." In 20 years of BioTrade: Connecting people, the planet and markets, edited by Lorena Jaramillo Castro, 8-10. Geneva, Switzerland: UNCTAD.

  10. Scovazzi, Tullio. 2016. "The negotiations for a binding instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond national jurisdiction." Marine Policy 70:188-191. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.04.007.



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