Trinidad and Tobago Endangered Languages





RDI TTEL Project Endangered Languages Patois RDI TTEL Project Patois


N. Hodge's Patois Speakers Channel and its Playlist



Trinidadian Patois Speakers

Annou Palé Patwa (group) and Annou Palé Patwa (page)



Language Blag

Hadden, P. (2011). Mo Jou-a – Word of the Day in Trinidadian French Creole (Patois). Click here for more.

Henry, M. A. (2011). Klas Kwéyòl: Resource and Learning site for those who are learning to speak Trinidadian French Creole (Patois).



Martinique 1ère. Trinidad: Les Dernier Créolophones (2016). (Click here for the original version in French.)

Hodge, N.R. and J.S. Ferreira. (2015). Linguistic Landscapes. UWI, St Augustine: RDIFund.

de Verteuil, A. and E. Cadiz Topp. (2006). Jab: The Blue Devils of Paramin

de Verteuil, A. and E. Cadiz Topp (2004). C'est Quitte – The French Creoles of Trinidad:  A documentary film on the influence of French culture on the life and history of Trinidad. Port-of-Spain: Pearl and Dean. (See extract here.)

Idiom TV's “The Road Less Travelled”

Morris, K. and Vialva, R. (2009). Documentary on Patois Project. School of Business and Computer Sciences.


Newspaper, Blog and other articles

Brereton, B. Creole Grammar. Trinidad Express 10 April 2013

Brereton, B. Froudacity. Trinidad Express 25 April 2013

Brereton, B. The French Creole Narrative. Trinidad Express 7 Nov 2012

Confiant, R. 5 Questions, 5 Réponses. Montray Kréyol. 16 July 2009.

Ferreira, J.S. Trinidad’s Anglicisation Policy or One Big Reason Why Trinidad is No Longer Multilingual. Language Blag. 17 February 2015.

Ferreira, J.S. Where Patois Words Come From. Language Blag. 10 February 2015.

Ferreira, J.S. Caribbean French Creole and Quebec French. Language Blag. 4 February 2015.

Ferreira, J.S. Patois in Calypso. Language Blag. 3 February 2015.

Ferreira, J.S. A Plug for Patois (Part 2). Language Blag. 26 January 2014.

Ferreira, J.S. A Plug for Patois. Language Blag. 26 January 2014.

Ferreira, J.S. Patois Meets Panyol: Venezuela is Closer than You Think. UWI Today April 2013.

Ferreira, J.S. Patois in Trinidad. UWI STAN. Oct 2012-Mar 2013. pp. 66-71.

Homer, L.B. Paramin Keeping Patois Alive. Trinidad Express 31 July 2011

Jéremy, G. Pouvons-nous encore sauver le Créole trinidadien? Caraib Creole News 17 December 2010

Jéremy, G. and C. Guerlotté. Trinidad - Parmain, la dernière forteresse créole? Caraib Creole News 3 January 2011

Kernahan, P. Patois in Trinidad.

Kissoon, F. Bar mwen un tee bow. Newsday 1 May 2010

Mathieu, G. Patois - A Living Legacy. Trinidad Guardian 2 June 2009

Neaves, J. Trinidad: A Language Lost (Yon Lang Nou Pèdi). Trinidad Express September 2006.

Spielmann, Florabelle. Eritaj fwansé é kréyòl andidan mès é labitid Trinidad - L'héritage franco-créole et la culture trinidadienne. Guadeloupe, October 2012.

Recorded Conference Presentations

Ferreira, J.S. (2017). L'usage de la graphie créole à Trinidad-et-Tobago. Paper presented at the Conference Tracées de Jean Bernabé par le CRILLASH, Université des Antilles, Schoelcher.

Braithwaite, B. and J.S. Ferreira. (2013). The diversity of endangered languages: Documenting three endangered languages in Trinidad and Tobago. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Language Documentation and Conservation (ICLDC), University of Hawai'i.



Dancing Cocoa

Jounen Kwéyòl at UWI



Aub-Buscher, G. (1968). Notes pour un glossaire du parler de la Trinité. Revue de linguistique romane, 32, 334–340.

Aub-Buscher, G. (1969).  Introduction to 1969 New Beacon Reprint of Thomas 1869. The Theory and Practice of Creole Grammar. London: New Beacon Books.

Aub-Buscher, G. (1989). African Survivals in the Lexicon of Trinidad French-Based Creole. Society of Caribbean Linguistics Occasional Paper No. 23, April. School of Education, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine.

Aub-Buscher, G. (2012). Trinidad French Creole. Language Varieties, edited by Jeff Siegel. Sato Center, University of Hawai'i.

Aub-Buscher, G.  In preparation. Trinidadian French Creole/English Glossary.

Baksh-Soodeen, R. (1994). A Historical Perspective on the Lexicon of Trinidadian English. Diss. PhD thesis. The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

Baptiste, R. (1993). Trini Talk: A Dictionary of Words and Proverbs of Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: Caribbean Information Systems and Services Ltd.

Besson, G. A. (2012). Voice in the Govi. Port-of-Spain: Paria Publishing Company. Read more here.

Blizzard, F. and Hodge, N., comp. (2009). Vini Chanté an Patwa: Come Sing in Patois—Patois Songs of Trinidad and Tobago. St Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics/Women Working for Social Progress. See articles in the press: Trinidad Express, Trinidad & Tobago Guardian and UWI Press Release.

Bryan, A. (1974). French, Spanish and Trinidad English. Americas, 26 (9), 25–31 (September).

Carr, A. (1956). Pierrot Grenade. Caribbean Quarterly, 4, 281-314.

Clews Parsons, E. W. (1933). Folk-lore of the Antilles, French and English Part I.  New York: American Folk-lore Society.

Clews Parsons, E.W. (1943). Folk-lore of the Antilles, French and English Part III.  New York: American Folk-lore Society.

Corne, C. (1999). From French to Creole: The Development of New Vernaculars in the French Creole World. London: University of Westminster Press.

Davidas, L. (2005). Présence et influences françaises dans la culture trinidadienne hier et aujourd’hui. In C. Lerat, ed. Le monde caraïbe: défis et dynamiques. Tome 1: Visions identitaires, diasporas, configurations culturelles. Actes du colloque international Bordeaux 3–7 juin 2003 (pp 361–372). Pessac: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme Aquitaine.

de Verteuil, A. (1978). Trinidad’s French Verse 1850–1900. Port-of-Spain: Instant Print.

de Verteuil, A. (1986). Sylvester Devenish and the Irish in Nineteenth Century Trinidad. Port-of-Spain: Paria Publishing Company.

de Verteuil, A. (2007). Sylvester Devenish: Trinidad’s Poet. Port-of-Spain: Litho Press.

de Verteuil, A. (2008). Léon de Gannes: Trinidad’s Raconteur. Port-of-Spain: Litho Press.

de Verteuil, A. (2010). Trinidad’s French Legacy 1776–2010. Port-of-Spain: Instant Print.

Eugene-Wafe, B. (2014).  Folktales from Paramin and the Lopinot Pageant. San Fernando: Caribbean Educational Publishers.

Fazzina, G. (2012).  Endangered Languages and the Role of Informal Interpreters: The Case of French Creole in Paramin, Trinidad. MA thesis. University of Westminster.

Ferreira, J. S. (1997).  (A Brief Overview of) The Sociolinguistic History of Trinidad & Tobago. Guest lecture delivered at the Departamento de Línguas Clássicas e Vernáculas (LIV), Instituto de Letras, Universidade de Brasília, 15 May.

Ferreira, J. S. (2001). Um crioulo francês numa nação não-francófona, Trinidad & Tobago: passado, presente e futuro. In PAPIA—Revista de Crioulos de Base Ibérica, 11, 28–39.

Ferreira, J. S. (2009). The History and Future of Patuá in Paria: Report on Initial Language Revitalization Efforts for French Creole in Venezuela. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 24(1), 139-157.

Ferreira, J.S. (2010). La historia y el futuro del patuá en Paria: Informe de los esfuerzos iniciales en la revitalización del criollo francés en Venezuela. Romanitas: Lenguas y Literaturas Romances Volume 4 Issue 2.

Ferreira, J.S. (2015). L’archivage et la préservation de l’histoire littéraire du créole français trinidadien. In Du français aux créoles: Phonétique, lexicologie & dialectologie antillaises (Linguistique variationelle) , edited by André Thibault. Paris: Classiques Garnier. pp. 335-352.

Ferreira, J.S. (2015). Trinidad’s French Creole linguistic and cultural heritage: Documentation and revitalisation issues. In Caribbean Dynamics: Reconfiguring Caribbean Culture , edited by Béatrice Boufoy-Bastick and Savrina Chinien. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers. pp. 111-125.

Ferreira, J.S. (2017). Les Vestiges d’une langue en voie de disparition : le cas du créole à base lexicale française à Trinidad. In La Caraïbe, chaudron des Amériques, edited by Jean-Michel Dévesa and Savrina Chinien. Limoges: Presses Universitaires de Limoges (PULIM) and Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF). pp. 135-146.

Ferreira, J. S., and Grant, A. P. (In preparation). French Creole (Patois) Texts of Trinidad and Tobago: In honour of John Jacob Thomas.

Ferreira, J.S. and Hodge, N. (2012). Trinidad’s French and French Creole Heritage. Public lecture delivered at Association Tandem, Woodbrook, Port-of-Spain, 1 March.

Ferreira, J. S. and Holbrook, D. J. (2002).  Are They Dying? The Case of Some French-Lexifier Creoles. La Torre - Revista de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 7 (25), 367–398 (July–September).

Gamble, W. H.  (1866). Trinidad – Historical and Descriptive Being a Narrative of Nine Years’ Residence in the Island, with Special Reference to Christian Missions.  London: Yates and Alexander.

Goodman, M. F. (1958). On the Phonemics of the French Creole of Trinidad. Word, 14, 2-3.  

Goodman, M. F. (1964).  A Comparative Study of Creole French Dialects. The Hague: Mouton.

Graham, M., Jr. (1981). Caribbean French Creole Survey. Society for Caribbean Linguistics Occasional Paper No. 19. School of Education, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine.

Grant, A.P. (2010). Annou Palé (an) Patwa: The Rise and Revival of Commonwealth Antillean Creole French with particular reference to Trinidad.  Seminar delivered at the University of Chester, 24 February.

Hancock, I. F. (1985).  A Preliminary Structural Sketch of Trinidad Creole French, with a Note on the Related Dialect of Guíria, Venezuela. Amsterdam Creole Studies, 8 (48), 27–39.

Hazaël-Massieux, M-C. (2008). Textes anciens en créole français de la Caraïbe:  Histoire et analyse. Paris: Publibook.

Hazaël-Massieux, M-C. (2011). Les créoles à base française. Paris: Editions Ophrys.

Hearn, L. (1885). Two Years in the French West Indies.  Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Literature House and Gregg Press.

Howell, A. C. Junior. (2003). Patois and English Folksongs of Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: CSAEL.

James, Cassie. MA. CARIMAC

Jourdain, E. (1954). Creole–a Folk Language. Caribbean Quarterly, 3 (1), 24–30.

le Dû, J. and Brun-Trigaud, G., eds. (2011).  Atlas Linguistique des Petites Antilles. Vol. I. Paris: Les éditions du Cths.


Lomax, Alan (2000). The Caribbean Voyage: Trinidad, The 1962 Field Recordings. Washington, DC: Rounder Select Recordings.

Lomax, Alan, with Elder, J.D. and Marchand, A. (1962). Recording Sessions by location (1933–1985).  

Mendes, J. (2003). Cote ce Cote la: Trinidad & Tobago Dictionary. 2nd ed. Port-of-Spain: Medianet, 2003.

Montano, T.M. and Montano, M. (c. 1975). Patois People are Alive (LP). Port-of-Spain: Caribbean Council of Churches.

Montray Kreyol, Centre de ressources pour la préparation des concours et examens de langue Créole: CAPES, Licence, Master, Doctorat, Professorat, etc. (2007–2012).

Munro, M. (2009). The French Creoles of Trinidad and the Limits of the Francophone. French Studies, 63(2), 174–188.

Ottley, C.R. (1965). Trinidadianese: How to Old-Talk in Trinidad. Port-of-Spain: Granderson Bros.

Ottley, C.R. (1971). Creole Talk (Trinibagianese) of Trinidad and Tobago: Words, phrases and sayings peculiar to the country. Port-of-Spain: Victory Press.

Parkvall, M. (2003). The Rise and Fall of French Creole in the Commonwealth Lesser Antilles. In A. P. Grant (Ed.), Papers in Contact Linguistics (pp. 113-163). Bradford: University of Bradford Press.

Pastner, C. (1987). A Sociolinguistic Study of a Rural Trinidad Community. New York: Research Institute for the Study of Man.

Penard, T.E. (1928). Remarks on an Old Vocabulary from Trinidad. West Indische Gids, 9, 265–270.

Penard, T.E. (1980). The Sociohistorical Background to the Language Situation in Trinidad. Master’s Essay. Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Ransau, J. (1991–1992). Evolisyon “Patwa” Trinidad-la: yè, djòdi, èk “Tomorrow.” Special Project in Linguistics. The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

Ransau, J. (1994). Etude des emprunts anglais dans le créole à base lexicale française de Trinidad. Mémoire de D.E.A., G.E.R.E.C., Université des Antilles-Guyane, Schoelcher.

Ryan, P. (1985). Macafouchette. La Romaine, Trinidad: The Author.

Scott, N. (2011). A Linguistic Description of Definiteness in Trinidadian French-lexicon Creole. PhD thesis. The University of the West Indies, Mona.

Sealey, W., with Aquing, P. (1983). A Sociolinguistic Profile of Trinidad. Paper presented for the Caribbean Lexicography Project. The University of the West Indies, St Augustine.

Solomon, D. (1993). The Speech of Trinidad: A Reference Grammar. St Augustine: School of Continuing Studies, The University of the West Indies.

Taylor, D. M. (1977). Languages of the West Indies.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

Thomas, J.J. (1969). The Theory and Practice of Creole Grammar. Port-of-Spain: Chronicle Publishing Office, 1869. London: New Beacon Books.

Thomas, J.J. (1870).  Creole Philology. Trbner’s American and Oriental Literary Record, Dec., 31, 57-58.

Thomas, Kesha. MA. UAG, Schoelcher.

Vidale, A. (2005). Biography: John Jacob Thomas.

Winer, L. (2007). Badjohns, Bhaaji and Banknote Blue: Essays on the Social History of Language in Trinidad and Tobago. St Augustine: School of Continuing Studies/Open Campus, The University of the West Indies.

Winer, L. ed. (2009). Dictionary of the English/Creole of Trinidad & Tobago. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.



Anthony, Nathalie. “The French Influence in the Language of Trinidad.” C.S.P., 1989.

Bovell, Nicole. Translation of Félix Lambert-Prudent’s Des Baragouins à la langue antillaise. See also Nadine Joseph, and Lisa La Barrie.

Cassar, Lesley-Ann. From Paris to Port-of-Spain: the Alliance Française in Trinidad. C.S.P.

Dopson-Morris, Angela. “A Sociolinguistic Profile of Paramin Village.” C.S.P., 19.

Evans, Tracy. French Cultural Services in Trinidad, Barbados and Grenada. C.S.P.

Mohammed, Zubaida. Crêche Music. C.S.P.

Nicholas, Ellij. Paramin. C.S.P.

Phillip, Satis. C.S.P.

Richardson, Andrea. Impact and Continuing Influence of France on Culture and Society of Trinidad and Tobago. C.S.P.

Romany, Rodney. Paramin. C.S.P.

Samsundar, Taramatee. “A Study of the Verb System of a French Creole speaker.” C.S.P.

Sealey, Wendy. “Some Features of the English of a French Creole Speaker.” C.S.P.

Wafe, Barbara. Paramin. C.S.P.

Williams, Rae-Ann. Lopinot. C.S.P.

Wright, Cleopatra. “French Creole Lexicon Items in the Speech of Trinidadians.” C.S.P.