Vision function is classified into 4 broad categories: normal vision; moderate vision impairment; severe vision impairment; and blindness. In 2013-2014 UWI conducted a was a population-based, cross-sectional national eye survey to:
- Estimate the population-based prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in persons aged 5 years and above.
- Identify the causes of vision impairment in the population
- Measure the impact of vision impairment on health and quality of life.
- Assess the effectiveness of the eye care system.
The study made important finding about the prevalence of eye diseases and the status of the eye-care system in Trinidad and Tobago.
- Glaucoma and untreated cataract are the two leading causes of blindness in the population aged five years and above. These are followed by diabetic retinopathy.
- Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of moderate and severe vision impairment in the population aged five years and above, accounting for almost 50% of cases.
- Cataract is the second leading cause of moderate and severe vision impairment accounting for 27% of cases.
- Congenital anomalies are the leading cause of blindness in children (44% of cases enrolled at the School for the Blind).
With respect to the eye-care system, the study found that policy action is needed to improve the eye-care system arrangements; and strengthen governance of the national eye care system.