INRL 5004


Dr. Jacqueline Laguardia Martinez

Required/Essential (Online and print)

There is no required textbook for this course. Most resources will be available as digital documents and media, including reports and academic books and articles at the library of IIR and UWI, as well as newspapers and daily press reports.

Recommended (Online and print)

Topic 1. Conceptualizing the Caribbean


  1. Allahar, Anton. “Identity and Erasure: Finding the Elusive Caribbean”, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 79, October 2005 Click here

  2. Carpentier, Alejo. "Prologue" to The Kingdom of This World, 1949 Click here

  3. Fernández Retamar, Roberto. “Caliban: Notes towards a discussion of culture in our America”, in Caliban and other essays, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1971:-  Call number: F1408.3 .F398 1989 (AJL-General)

  4. Gaztambide-Géigel, Antonio. “Mejor vivido que pensado: las invenciones del Caribe (revisitadas), Revista Casa de las Américas, No. 295, Año LX, abril-junio 2019, pp. 40 – 56. Call number: PN6 .C3 (AJL-General)

  5. Girvan, Norman. “Constructing the Greater Caribbean”, in Pan-Caribbean Integration. Beyond CARICOM, edited by Patsy Lewis, Terri-Ann Gilbert-Roberts and Jessica Byron, Routledge, 2018. Call number: JL599.5.A38 P36 2018 (NGL-General; AJL-Reserve)

  6. Pantojas-García, Emilio. “Economic Integration and Caribbean Identity: Convergences and Divergences,” in Caribbean Studies vol. 36, no.1, Jan.-June 2008 Click here

  7. Premdas, Ralph R. “Ethnicity and Identity in the Caribbean: Decentering a Myth”, Working Paper #234 - December 1996 Click here

  8. Premdas, Ralph R. Identity, ethnicity, and the Caribbean homeland in an era of globalization, Social Identities, Vol. 17, No. 6, November 2011 Click here

Topic 2. The Spanish, French and Dutch Caribbean


  1. Alders, Arxen A. Obstacles to ‘Good Governance’ in the Dutch Caribbean Colonial- and Postcolonial Development in Aruba and Sint Maarten, Master Thesis, 2015 Click here

  2. Allen, Rose Mary. “The Complexity of National Identity Construction in Curaçao, Dutch Caribbean”, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 89, October 2010 | 117-125. Click here

  3. Alzugaray, Carlos. Anti-Hegemony in Theory and Practice: The Exceptional Case of Cuba, paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 Click here

  4. Byron, Jessica, “Martinique’s Accession to the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States: A New Chapter in Caribbean Regionalism?”, The Round Table, 106:3, 279-302, 2017 Click here

  5. Domínguez, Jorge I. “Reshaping the relations between the United States and Cuba”, in Debating U.S.- Cuban Relations, Shal we play ball?, Routledge, 2012 Click here

  6. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, An Update on the competitiveness of Puerto Rico’s economy, July 31, 2014 Click here

  7. Ferguson, James. Migration in the Caribbean: Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Beyond, July 2003 Click here

  8. Gamaliel Ramos, Aarón. “Performing Identity: The Politics of Culture in Contemporary Puerto Rico”, Pouvoirs dans la Caraïbe 14, 2004 Click here

  9. García Muñiz, Humberto. “The Colonial Persuasion: Puerto Rico and the Dutch and French Antilles” in Stephan Palmié and Francisco A. Scarano (eds.) The Caribbean: A History and Its Peoples London: The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., 2011 Click here

  10. Kristensen, Kåre and Bridget Wooding, Haiti / Dominican Republic: upholding the rights of immigrants and their descendants, October 2013 Click here

  11. Laronde, Michel. “La Départementalisation: Les DOM-ROM entre postcolonial et postcontact", International Journal of Francophone Studies Volume 11 Numbers 1 and 2, 2008 Click here

  12. LeoGrande, William. The End of the Bogeyman: The political repercussions of the U.S.-Cuban rapprochement, AU-SSRC Implications of Normalization: Scholarly Perspectives on U.S.-Cuban Relations, April 2015

  13. Lesser et al., Intra-Caribbean Migration and the Conflict Nexus, 2006 Call number: WI JV7322 .I58 2006 (Norman Girvan library-General)

  14. Pérez, Louis A. Cuba as an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Centre for the Democracy in the Americas, April 4, 2014 Click here

  15. Rivera Lugo, Carlos “The Politics of the International Law of Decolonisation in the Case of Puerto Rico”, paper presented before the International Institute for the Sociology of Law Oñati, Basque Country, Spain, 2006

Topic 3. The Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS)


1. Baldacchino, Godfrey and Geoffrey Bertram ’The Beak of the Finch: Insights into the Economic Development of Small Economies’, The Round Table, Vol.98, No.401, 141- 160, April 2009 Click here

2. Baldacchino, Godfrey, "Mainstreaming the study of small states and territories", Small States & Territories, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-16, 2018 Click here

3. Braveboy-Wagner, J. ‘Opportunities and Limitations of the Exercise of Foreign Policy Power by a very small state: the case of Trinidad and Tobago’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 23, 3, 2010 Click here

4. Campbell, John L. and Hall, John A. 'National identity and the political economy of small states', Review of International Political Economy, 16: 4, 547 — 572, 2009 Click here

5. Cross-Mike, Solange. Caribbean Diplomacy: Research on Diplomacy of Small States (Draft paper) Click here

6. Lee, Donna and Nicola J Smith, “Small State Discourses in the International Political Economy”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 7, 2010 Click here

7. Maass, Matthias “The elusive definition of the small state”, International Politics Vol. 46, 1, 65–83, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 Click here

8. Ocampo, José Antonio. Small Economies in the Face of Globalisation, Third William G. Demas Memorial Lecture at the Caribbean Development Bank, Cayman Islands, 14 May 2002 Call number: HC151.A1 W55 2004 (Alma Jordan Library-West Indiana)

9. Sutton, Paul “The Concept of Small States in the International Political Economy”, The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 100:413, 141-153, 2011 Click here

10. Virtue, Grace. Challenges for Microstates in a Global World: Imperatives for Caribbean Survival in the 21st Century, Washington, 2007

Topic 4. Development challenges for the Caribbean


1. Alleyne, Trevor et al. Loss of Correspondent Banking Relationships in the Caribbean: Trends, Impact, and Policy Options, WP/17/209, IMF Working Papers, 2017 Click here

2. Bernard, Godfrey St. Measuring social vulnerability in Caribbean states, 8th SALISES Annual Conference Crisis, Chaos and Change: Caribbean Development Challenges in the 21st Century, March 2007 Click here

3. Bissessar, Ann Marie [Ed.], Development, Political, and Economic Difficulties in the Caribbean, Palgrave Macmillan, March, pp. 215 – 233, 2019. Call number: HC151 .D48 2019 (Alma Jordan Library- General & West Indiana)

4. Caribbean Country Management Unit et al., A Time to Choose. Caribbean Development in the 21st Century, World Bank, April 26, 2005 Call Number: HC155 .T56 2005 (Alma Jordan Library- General & West Indiana)

5. Nicolai, Susan, Tanvi Bhatkal, Chris Hoy and Thomas Aedy. Projecting progress: The SDGs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overseas Development Institute, 2016. Click here

6. Payne, Anthony and Paul Sutton. Repositioning the Caribbean within Globalisation, the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Caribbean Paper no. 1, (2007), pp.1-28. Call Number: WI HC155 .P39 2007 (Norman Girvan Library- General)

7. Pulwarty, Roger S. Leonard A. Nurse and Ulric O. Trotz, Caribbean Islands in a Changing Climate, November-December 2010 Click here

8. Rustomjee, Cyrus. Financing the Sustainable Development Goals: Issues Paper, Discussion Paper # 2, Second Caribbean Region Dialogue, Lima, Peru, October 2015

9. The Caribbean and the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda, Symposium on sustainable development goals for the Caribbean, Draft within the post-2015 development agenda, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, June 2015 Click here

10. United Nations, Regional Human Development Report for Latin America and the Caribbean. Multidimensional progress: well-being beyond income, 2016 Click here

11. United Nations, The 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. An opportunity for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016 Click here


Topic 5. Regional Integration Processes in the Caribbean


1. Anatol, Marlon. Economic Development of Small Island States in the 21st Century: The Advantages of Hemispheric Cooperation Initiatives, paper presented at the 4th International Conference of the University of Havana, Cuba, December 2010

2. Bishop, Matthew Louis and Anthony Payne, Caribbean Regional Governance and the Sovereignty/Statehood Problem, Caribbean Paper No. 8, February 2010 Click here

3. Bishop, Matthew, Norman Girvan et al. “Caribbean Regional Integration”, Report By the UWI IIR, April 2011 Click here

4. Clegg, Peter “Guyana, its Foreign Policy, and the Path to Development”, The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 103:4, 399-410, 2014 Click here

5. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Review of CARIFORUM-EU EPA – Implications for the British and Dutch Caribbean Octs. Click here

6. Girvan, Norman. “Whither CSME?”, Journal of Caribbean International Relations, No. 1, April 2005. Click here

7. Girvan, Norman. Caribbean integration: can cultural production succeed where politics and economics have failed? (Confessions of a Wayward Economist) Click here

8. Kirton, Mark. The Caribbean Community in the Hemisphere: Alternative Pathways To Regional Integration, paper presented at the 4th International Conference of the University of Havana, December 2010

9. Lewis, Patsy, Terri-Ann Gilbert-Roberts and Jessica Byron [Eds.], Pan-Caribbean Integration: Beyond CARICOM, Routledge, 2017. Call number: JL599.5.A38 P36 2018 (Norman Girvan Library-General; Alma Jordan Library-Reserve)

10. Lewis, Vaughan A. What purposes for CARICOM integration today?, paper read as the Third Sir Arthur Lewis Lecture in the University of the West Indies , on April 2008 Click here

11. Mandle, Jay R. Caribbean Integration and the Global Economic Crisis, Prepared for Presentation at 11th Annual SALISES Conference, March 24-26, 2010 Click here

12. Patterson, P.J. “The Promise of Caribbean Unity”, speech delivered at the Central Bank Auditorium, May 26, 2006 Click here

13. World Bank , Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Towards a New Agenda for Growth, April 7, 2005 Click here


Topic 6. The Caribbean and Hemispheric Powers


1. Burges, Sean W. “Brazil as a bridge between old and new powers?”, International Affairs 89: 3, 2013 Click here

2. CRS Report for Congress. Caribbean Region: Issues in U.S. Relations, Updated October 27, 2006 Click here

3. Girvan, Norman. The Caricom-Canada FTA: What’s the hurry?, 2009

4. Greene, Gerard Relations between Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and the BRICS: Locating a Caribbean Space, November 2013 Click here

5. Laguardia Martinez, Jacqueline et al., Changing Cuba-U.S. Relations: What Implications for CARICOM States?, Palgrave Macmillan, October 2019

6. Lazarou, Elena. “Brazil and Regional Integration in South America: Lessons from the EU’s Crisis”, Contexto Internacional Rio de Janeiro, vol. 35, no 2, julho/dezembro 2013 Click here

7. Matera, Michael A. The Relevance of U.S.-Caribbean Relations: Three Views, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), June 30, 2017 Click here

8. Palmer, Ransford W. “The United States’ Win-Win Relationship with the Caribbean”, Brown Journal of World Affairs, Fall/Winter, volume xvi, issue I, 2009 Click here

9. Tingle-Smith, Tanisha. “The New Geography of Brazil-Caribbean Economic Cooperation: How Brazil is Bridging the Hemispheric Divide with the Caribbean”, Experts Panel Conference Paper Conference on the Caribbean: A 2020 Vision, June 2007 Click here

10. Ward, Curtis A. The Security-Development Nexus in United States–Caribbean Relations, prepared for the Conference on The Caribbean Expert Forum, Washington, 19-21 June 2007 Click here


Topic 7. The Caribbean and Non-Hemispheric Powers


1. Girvan, Norman. Caricom’s Development Vision and the EPA: A Fork in the Road, Public Lecture, UWI, Cave Hill, Barbados, April 2008

2. Brewster, Havelock R. The Anti-Development Dimension of the European Community’s Economic Partnership Agreement for the Caribbean

3. Thomas, Clive. “Reflections on the CARIFORUM-EC Economic Partnership Agreement: Implications for CARICOM,” in Kenneth O. Hall and Myrtle Chuck-a-Sang (eds.) CARICOM: Policy Options for International Engagement Ch. 19, pp. 258-290, 2010 Click here

4. Montoute, Annita et al. The Caribbean in the EU-CELAC Partnership, December 2017 Click here

5. European Commission, The Caribbean and the European Union, May 2002 Click here

6. Montoute, Annita. “Caribbean-China Economic Relations: what are the Implications?”, Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy, Vol. 1, No. 1, February 2013 Click here

7. Brandt , Jon et al., Chinese Engagement in Latin America and the Caribbean: Implications for US Foreign Policy, American University, December 2012 Click here

8. Campbell, Caitlin and Zoe Valette. China’s Expanding and Evolving Engagement with the Caribbean, May 2014 Click here

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