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INRL 5007

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Dr. Indera Sagewan

SUGGESTED READINGS

Please Note that the readings provided are not exhaustive but intended to provide students with some suggested research materials. Students are encouraged to expand their research beyond the confines of the references provided herein.

Basic texts which provide a good introduction to the theories and concepts discussed in the course:

 

  1. Arora, Anil (2007). International Trade Theories and Current Trends in the Globalised World. Call number: HF1379 .A76 2007 (NGL-General)

  2. Cho, Dong-Sung & Moon, Hwy-Chang (2000). From Adam Smith to Michael Porter, The Evolution of Competitiveness Theory. World Scientific. Call number: HF1414 .C456 2013 (NGL-Reserve)

  3. Falvey, Rod & Udo Kreickemeier (2005). Recent Developments in International Trade Theory. Cheltenham, UK. Call number: HF1379 .R43 2005 (NGL-Reserve)

  4. Gangolfo, Giancarlo (2014). International Trade Theory and Policy. 2nd Edition. ISBN 978-3-642-37314-5 Click here

  5. UNDP/Rockefeller (2003). Making Global Trade Work for People, Call number: HF1379 .U54 2003 (NGL-General)

1. Role of International Trade in Economic Development -An Overview

 

  1. Arora, Anil (2007). International Trade Theories and Current Trends in the Globalised World. Call number: HF1379 .A76 2007 (NGL-General)

  2. Cho, Dong-Sung & Moon, Hwy-Chang (2000). From Adam Smith to Michael Porter, The Evolution of Competitiveness Theory. World Scientific. Call number: HF1414 .C456 2013 (NGL-Reserve)

  3. Falvey, Rod & Udo Kreickemeier (2005). Recent Developments in International Trade Theory. Cheltenham, UK. Call number: HF1379 .R43 2005 (NGL-Reserve)

  4. Gangolfo, Giancarlo (2014). International Trade Theory and Policy. 2nd Edition. ISBN 978-3-642-37314-5 Click here

  5. The role of international trade in the post-2015 development https://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/cid33_en.pdf

  6. Frank, Isaiah, “New Perspectives on Trade and Development,” Foreign Affairs, 04 1967 (Vol. 45, No. 3), pp. 520–540.

  7. Frank, I. (1968). The Role of Trade in Economic Development. International Organization, 22(1), 44-71. Click here

  8. The Meaning of Development – Dudley Seers Institute of Development Studies https://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/themeaningofdevelopment.pdfIDS Communication 44, 1969. © Institute of Development Studies 1969

2. International Trade and Growth Theories: From Classical to Neoclassical to Competitiveness Theories

 

  • From Absolute to Comparative Advantage

  • The Hecksher/Olin/Samuelson Trade Model

  • Product Life Cycle

  • New Trade Theory (Trade and Growth in the New Endogenous Growth Models)

  • From Comparative to Competitive Advantage

 

  1. Falvey, Rod & Udo Kreickemeier (2005). Recent Developments in International Trade Theory. Cheltenham, UK. Call number: HF1379 .R43 2005 (NGL-Reserve)

  2. Gangolfo, Giancarlo (2014). International Trade Theory and Policy. 2nd Edition. ISBN 978-3-642-37314-5 Click here

  3. Jones Ronald W (1956). “Factor Proportions and the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem”. Review of Economic Studies, 24: 1-10. Click here

  4. Krugman, Paul. (1979). “Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition and International Trade.” Journal of International Economics, 9, No.4, 69-479. Click here

  5. Krugman, Paul & Maurice Obstfeld (2009). International Economics: Theory and Policy. Pearson, Addison-Wesley, USA\ Call number: HF1359 .K78 2009 (NGL-Reserve)

  6. Leamer. E. (1984). Sources of International Comparative Advantage. Cambridge: MIT Press Call number: HF1412 .L42 1984 (NGL-Reserve; AJL-General)

  7. Linder, Staffan. 1961. An Essay on Trade and Transformation. New York: John Wiley. Click here

  8. Samuelson, Paul (1948). “International Trade and the Equalization of Factor Prices”. Economic Journal 58: 165-184. Click here

  9. Smith, Adam (1937) (1776). “An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” in Charles W. Elliot ed. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Corporation. Call number: HB161 .S65 1991 (AJL-General)

  10. Stewart, R. (1984). “Recent Theories of International Trade: Some Implications for the South,” in Monopolistic Competition and International Trade, (ed) H. Klerhowski, Oxford University Press. Call number: HF1414 .M66 1984 (AJL-General)

  11. Vernon, Raymond. (1966). “International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80, May 190-207. Click here

  12. Vernon, Raymond. (1979). The Product Cycle Hypothesis in a New International Environment. Reprinted in Heidi Wortzel and Lawrence Wortzel, eds. Strategic Management of Multinational Corporations: The Essentials (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985). Click here

  13. Bernal, R. (2006) Nano Firms, Regional Integration and International Competitiveness: The Experience and Dilemma of the CSME, HALL, K.and BENN, D. (Eds) Production Integration in the Caribbean: From Theory to Action. Jamaica, Ian Randle. Click here

  14. Dass, Dilip K. (1998). Changing Comparative Advantage and the Changing Composition of Asian Exports. London, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Click here

  15. Erickson, G. Scott and Helen. N. Rothberg. 2000. “Intellectual Capital and Competitiveness: Guidelines for Policy.” Competitiveness Review 10 (2). Click here

  16. Fadare, Samuel O.. "Recent Banking Sector Reforms and Economic Growth in Nigeria". Middle Eastern Finance and Economics (Issue 8 (2010)

  17. Government of Australia. (1999). Commonwealth Department of Industry, Science and Resources. Background Paper on Australia's Service Industries. OECD [online]. Paper prepared for OECD Business and Industry Policy Forum on Realizing the Potential of the Service Economy: Facilitating Growth, Innovation and Competition. Paris, 28 September <http://www.oecd.org/pdf/M00000000/M00000691.pdf>

  18. Krugman, Paul .R. (1996). “Making Sense of the Competitiveness Debate. International Competitiveness.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 12, No.3: 17-25. Click here

  19. Krugman, Paul .R (1994). “Competitiveness: A Dangerous Obsession” Foreign Affairs 73 (2).

  20. Lado, Augustine. A. & Mary C. Wilson (1994) “Human Resource Systems and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Competency Based Perspective.” Academy of Management Review, October. Click here

  21. New Growth Theory, Technology and Learning: A Practitioner's Guide, U.S. Economic Development Administration. Click here

  22. Parente, Stephen (2001) The Failure of Endogenous Growth (Online at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). (Published in Knowledge Technology & Policy Volume XIII, Number 4. Click here

  23. Piercy, Nigel. F. Anna Kaleta & Constantine Katsikeas (1998). “Sources of Competitive Advantage.” Journal of World Business, 33 (4): 378-392. Click here

  24. Porter, Michael (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press. Call number: HD3611 .P654 1998 (NGL-Reserve)

3. The Structure, Characteristics and role of key Institutions in the current world trading system;

  • WTO and its predecessor GATT
  • IMF
  • UNTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  1. The History and Future of the World Trade Organization https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/historywto_e.pdf

  2. 10 things the WTO can do https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtocan_e.pdf

  3. WTO Annual Report 2019 - WTO https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/anrep19_e.htm

  4. IMF and the World Trade Organization https://www.imf.org/en/About/Factsheets/The-IMF-and-the-World-Trade-Orga...

  5. The International Monetary Fund, the World Trade ... http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/570459/EXPO_BRI(2016)570459_EN.pdf

  6. unctad in brief https://unctad.org/en/Docs/edmmisc17rev1_en.pdf

  7. Trade and Development Report 2019 - UNCTAD https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/tdr2019_en.pdf

  8. A New Multilateralism for Shared Prosperity - Boston University https://www.bu.edu/gdp/files/2019/04/A-New-Multilateralism-GDPC_UNCTAD.pdf Unctad—Achievements and Expectations - SAGE Journals https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0015732515680413By S.S. Mehta.

4. Trade agreements and their role in International Trade with specific reference to the Caribbean

 

  1. Buitelaar Rudolf and Juan Alberto Fuentes (1991). “The Competitiveness of the Small Economies of the Region.” CEPAL Review 43, April.

  2. Benn, Dennis & Kenneth Hall (eds.) (2006). Production Integration in CARICOM: from Theory to Action. Ian Randle.

  3. Blake, B. (undated). Challenges and Opportunities: The Need for Partners in Caribbean Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development International, (12). http://www.sustdev.org/index.php?Itemid=66&section=12&section_name=Touri...

  4. Caribbean Group for Cooperation in Economic Development (CGCED). (2002). Caribbean Economic Overview. World Bank Group. <http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/External/lac/lac.nsf/Events/D682AA1AD3DC3F0...

  5. Carrington, E. (2007). Competitiveness Critical To Region. Press Release 137/2007 Georgetown: CARICOM Secretariat.

  6. Berridge, S. (2005). (CSME). Competition is Necessary. The St. Kitts-Nevis Observer. August 5. http://www.stkittsnevisobserver.com/aug1105/business1a.htm

  7. Chang, Ha-Joon (2002). Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. Anthem Press, London.

  8. Girvan, N. (2007). Towards a Single Development Vision and the Role of the Single Economy. Georgetown: CARICOM Secretariat (2004). Reflections on the CSME. http://sta.uwi.edu/salises/workshop/csme/paper/ngirvan.pdf

  9. Jamaica Observer (2014) CARICOM Foreign Policy Failures. January 5. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/editorial/Caricom-foreign-policy-failures...

  10. Kotler, Philip. 1999. How to Create, Win and Dominate Markets. New York: Free Press.

  11. Krieger-Boden, Christiane. “Globalization, Integration and Regional Specialization.” http://ideas.repec.org/p/kie/kieliw/1009.html

  12. Lamy, Pascal (2013). The Perilous Retreat From Global Trade Rules. LiveMint & Wall Street Journal. http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/5nq46BGZdXnvX6NXgjsy8I/The-perilous-retr...

  13. Jean-Pierre Lehmann (2013). Bali Boost: WTO Lives, Snatched for Now From Jaws of Defeat. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/bali-boost-wto-lives-now-jaws-defeat

  14. Mirza, Hafiz (1998). Global Competitive Strategies in the New World Economy: Multilateralism, Regionalization and the Transnational firm. Cheltenham; Northhampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  15. Mehta, Pardeep (2013) Multilateralism versus Regionalism in Trade. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/opinion/comments-analysis/wto-at-bal...

  16. Mohammed, Debbie (2014). “Making the EPA Work for CARICOM Business.”

  17. Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce. Contact, 14 (3) pp15-16

  18. Mohammed, Debbie (2014). Inclusive Growth and CARICOM Economies Considerations in Developing a Green Growth Framework. NIHERST, POS Trinidad.

  19. Mohammed, Debbie, A & Preeya Mohan (2013). “Growing the Maritime Sector in

  20. Trinidad and Tobago: Key Considerations in the Creation of Dynamic Ship Repair and

  21. Yachting Industry Value Chains.” Global Development Studies, 7, Winter-Spring 2012-2013 (1-2.).

  22. Mohammed, Debbie A. & David Gibbs (2012). “Surviving the Recession: the State ofCaribbean Economies.” The IUP Indian Journal of International Relations Vol. VI No.2 April. pp. 21-40.

  23. Mohammed, D. A (2009) “The CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement: Impediment or Development Opportunity for CARICOM SIDS?” in Andrew Cooper & Timothy Shaw (eds.) Diplomacies of Small States: between vulnerability & resilience in the global political economy. Centre for International Governance Innovation, Palgrave, pp.160-177.

  24. Mohammed, D.A. (2008) “Size and Competitiveness: An Examination of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME):” The Round Table Vol.97 (395) April; pp 287-303.

  25. Enhancing CARICOM Competitiveness: Can the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME) and the EU-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) Facilitate This Process? IberoAmerican-The Nordic Journal of Latin America and Caribbean Studies Iberoamericana Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Vol. XXXVIII: 1-2, 2008 pp 81-101. Eds. Anselm Francis, Debbie Mohammed and James Wardally.

  26. New Strategies Must Drive Export. Trinidad, Sunday Guardian April, 2006 “Building Competitiveness in CARICOM States: The Role of Service Exports”, in Ramesh Ramsaran (ed) Size, Power and Development in the Emerging World Order;

  27. Caribbean Perspectives. Lexicon Trinidad Ltd. (15) pp. 304 -322. 2006

  28. Nagorski, Andrew. 1994. “The fight over Competitiveness.” Foreign Affairs [online] 73 (4). <http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19940701faresponse5134/none/the-fight-over...

  29. Payne, A. and P. Sutton, (2007). Repositioning the Caribbean Within Globalisation. Waterloo: Centre for International Governance Innovation

  30. Perales, J.R. (2006). “Caribbean Economies and Trade Liberalization: Rethinking Size, Asymmetries, and Coordination.” The Nassau Institute. http://www.nassauinstitute.org/wmview.php?ArtID=611

  31. Saunders, R. (2007). Mergers of Caribbean firms: Key to competitiveness. http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/cgi-script/csArticles/articles/000018/00...

  32. Trinidad Express (2004.) New Global Realities Demand New CARICOM Trade Policy: CSME Vital for National and Regional Development. Port of Spain: Express. August 10.

  33. United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC (2000). The Vulnerability of the Small Island Developing States. <http://searcher.eclacpos.org/cdchtm/G0588.HTM>

  34. Vlcek, W. (2007). Why Worry? The Impact of the OECD Harmful Tax Competition Initiative on Caribbean Offshore Financial Centres. The Round Table.96 (390) pp 331-346.

5. Contemporary issues shaping the International Trade System and implications for the Caribbean

 

  • Global Value Chains

  • Liberalization to protectionism: the Trump Effect

  • China’s silk Road project and its impact on International trade

  • Regional Trading Blocks

  • Issues of equity and resilience in International Trade (Fair Trade/Climate change

  • Brixit

  1. Implications of Global Value Chains for Trade ... - UNCTAD https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/unctad_oecd_wto_2013d1_en.pdf

  2. Trade and growth in the age of global value chains - Vox EU https://voxeu.org/article/trade-and-growth-age-global-value-chains28 Jan 2019

  3. Global Value Chain Development Report: Measuring and Analyzing the Impact of GVCs on ... Global Value Chains (GVCs) are transforming global trade https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/trade/publication/global-value-chain-...

  4. Recent trends in global trade and global value chains https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/gvcs_report_2017_chapter2.pdf

  5. Global Value Chain Development Report 2019 https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/gvcd_report_19_e.htm

  6. Trade Policy Implications of Global Value Chains by OECD 2018... https://issuu.com/oecd.publishing/docs/trade_policy_implications_of_global

  7. A quick guide to the US-China trade war - BBC News - BBC.com 2019 https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45899310

  8. Trump's Trade Wars Aren't All His or China's Fault. The Next ... https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/10/19/trade-wars-inevitable-us-china-econ...

  9. Trade Wars: Definition, Trump vs China and EU - The Balance 2019 https://www.thebalance.com/trade-wars-definition-how-it-affects-you-4159973

  10. The Unwinnable Trade War Between the United States and China 2019 https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/asia/2019-10-08/unwinnable-trade...

  11. Why trade wars have no winners | World Economic Forum 2019 https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/11/who-benefits-from-a-trade-war/

  12. US-China trade war is a 'lose-lose' situation for them (2019) https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/105066

  13. (PDF) US-China Trade War: Learning by Doing - ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329753777_US-China_Trade_War_Le...

  14. Developing Countries' Response to Trade Disputes http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/115171541615454756/pdf/WPS8640...

  15. How Would A U.S.-China Trade War Impact USD https://www.fxcm.com/uk/insights/u-s-china-trade-war-impact-on-usd/

  16. The Collateral Damage From the U.S.-China Trade War ... https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/27860/the-collateral-damage...

  17. US-China Trade Tensions: What may these mean for the Caribbean https://caribbeantradelaw.com/2018/09/23/us-china-trade-tensions-what-ma...

  18. The escalating US-China trade war - Jamaica Observer http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/the-escalating-us-china-trade-war_14...

  19. The impact of China's One Belt One Road initiative on International Trade https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336456774_The_impact_of_China's_One_Belt_One_Road_initiative_on_international_trade_in_the_ASEAN_region

  20. China's 'Belt and Road' Initiative: its strategic, trade, and fiscal implications https://researchoutreach.org/articles/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-it...

  21. Trade Effects of the New Silk Road - World Bank Documents http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/623141547127268639/pdf/Trade-E...

  22. China's One Belt, One Road: Will it reshape global trade? https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/china/chinas-one-belt-one-roa...

  23. Mohammed, Debbie A. & David Anyanwu (2013). ‘Leveraging Chinese Engagement in the Caribbean: What Opportunities Exist for the Development of Sustainable

  24. Renewable Energy Industries? “Global Development Studies, 7, Winter-Spring 2012-2013 (1-2.).

  25. Heterogeneity of regional trading blocs and global marketing strategies https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237785714_Heterogeneity_of_regi...

  26. Regional Trade Blocs in the World Economic System https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227441597_Regional_Trade_Blocs_...

  27. Consequence of Regional Trade Agreements to Developing Countries https://www.e-jei.org/upload/JEI_29_1_64_94_2013600036.pdf

  28. RESILIENCE, EQUITY AND OPPORTUNITY https://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/280558-12...

  29. Resilience and Inclusive Growth - G20 Insights https://www.g20-insights.org/policy_briefs/resilience-inclusive-growth/

  30. How Does Increasing International Trade Impact Societal wellbeing http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/how-does-increasing-international-trad...

  31. Resilience of Emerging Market Economies to Economic and ... https://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/economic_paper/2010/pd...

  32. Strengthening Urban Resilience for Growth with Equity ... - usaid https://www.usaid.gov/philippines/economic-growth-and-trade/strengthenin...

  33. A New Framework to Enable Equitable Outcomes https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2017EF000694

  34. Brexit Monitor The impact of Brexit on (global) trade - PwC https://www.pwc.nl/nl/brexit/documents/pwc-brexit-monitor-trade.pdf

  35. FORUM: Impact of Brexit on international trade — Financier ... https://www.financierworldwide.com/forum-impact-of-brexit-on-internation...

  36. The realities of trade after Brexit - Baker McKenzie https://www.bakermckenzie.com/-/media/files/insight/publications/brexit_...

  37. Risks and Rewards: The impact of Brexit on global trade ... https://www.globalbankingandfinance.com/risks-and-rewards-the-impact-of-...

  38. The impact of Brexit on trade regimes and Global Value Chains https://www.tbsearch.fr/en/the-impact-of-brexit-on-trade-regimes-and-glo...

6. Role of International Trade in CARICOM Development

 

  1. Akyüz, Yılmaz (2013) Where Next for Developing Countries? Future Prospects and Risks for South’s Economies Future Prospects and Risks for South’s Economies”. South Centre-South Views. : www.southcentre.int

  2. Akyüz, Yılmaz (2013) “The Impact of Global Crisis on Trade and Trade Imbalances.” South Centre-South Views. : www.southcentre.int

  3. Barnett, Carla, (1997). “The Caribbean Community [CARICOM]-Adjusting to the New Rules of the International Trading System.” http://www.caricom.org

  4. CARICOM Secretariat (1992). CARICOM “Single Market and Economy: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness.” Commonwealth Secretariat: London.

  5. Chang, Ha-Joon ed. (2003). Rethinking Development Economics. Anthem Press, London.

  6. Chang, Ha-Joon (2002). Kicking Away the Ladder: development Strategy in Historical Perspective. Anthem Press, London.

  7. Dookeran, Winston. 2001. The ‘New Economy’: Myth or Reality. Remarks by Governor of the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago at Rotary Club of St. Augustine East Special Joint Meeting 23rd August, 2001. Central Bank [online]. Available from: <http://www.central-bank.org.tt/communications/speeches/sp082301.html>

  8. Emmanuel, A (1972). Unequal Exchange. New York and London: Monthly Review Press

  9. Falvey, Rod & Udo Kreickemeier (2005). Recent Developments in International Trade Theory. Cheltenham, UK. Call number: HF1379 .R43 2005 (NGL-Reserve)

  10. Ganeshan, W, M Lezama, and D Joiner (2004). Small States in Transition

  11. Girvan, Norman. (1997). “Societies at Risk? The Caribbean and Global Change.” Management of Social Transformation. No.17. <:http://www.unesco.org/most/girvan.htm>

  12. Girvan, Norman (2002). Tricks and Trips: Foreign Investment and Knowledge Transfer Revisited. Sir Arthur Lewis Memorial Lecture. Castries, St. Lucia. January 25, 2002. In Association of Caribbean States Website. <http://www.acs-aec.org/tricks_and_trips_eng.htm>

  13. Girvan, Norman (undated) Globalization, Fragmentation and Economic Integration; A Caribbean Perspective. http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Library/3954/girvan.pdf

  14. Kelegama, Saman. (2001). “South Asia's Competitive Advantage In Knowledge Based Economy (KBE).” Paper presented at Seminar on South Asia's Competitive Advantage 9-10 February. Sponsored by the Indian Council for South Asian Cooperation and India International Centre. <http://www.saarcnet.org/saarcnetorg/study/bangladesh/Asia.htm>

  15. Khor, Martin (2013) “Economic Trouble in the South.”South Centre. www.southcentre.int

  16. Mohammed, D.A. (2006) “Not All Voices Heard at the WTO”. Sunday Guardian. May

  17. United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC (2000). The Vulnerability of the Small Island Developing States. <http://searcher.eclacpos.org/cdchtm/G0588.HTM>

  18. Wise, Timothy, A. “Hypocrisy Takes Centre Stage at WTO Meeting.” http://www.caribbean360.com/index.php/opinion/1089331.html?utm_source=Ca...

  19. Yi-Chong, Xu & Patrick Weller (2004). The Governance of World Trade: Internal Civil Servants and the GATT/WTO. Cheltenham, UK. Edward Elgar Publishing.

  20. Trade is essential for Caribbean - World Bank Documents

  21. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/738061467998816272/pdf/93184-v...

  22. CARICOM's Economic Independence: Role of Foreign Trade ... https://today.caricom.org/2019/08/07/caricoms-economic-independence-role... Aug 2019

  23. Caribbean countries discuss global trade challenges | The ...

  24. https://thecommonwealth.org/media/news/caribbean-countries-discuss-globa... Oct 2018

  25. Needed: A Caricom foreign trade strategy and agenda

  26. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/opinion/needed-a-caricom-foreign-trade-st...

  27. Size and Competitiveness: An Examination of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) Debbie A. Mohammed The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs Volume 97, 2008 - Issue 395: Small States in the International Political Economy

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