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134 From 1998 to 2010 the focus of my research has been on public sector reform and its impact on effective governance within the Caribbean region. My present research adds to my doctoral research completed in 1998 that examined reform in four countriesGuyana Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica and Barba- dos. It argued that policies and reform tools and mechanisms introduced by developing countries involve no more than large-scale policy transfer from developed countries. The great- est challenge in adopting such policies and programmes is that they often do not take into consideration the unique cultural environment of the country into which they were introduced. Furthermore many of the countries under review continued to adhere to the policies and programmes introduced by the departing colonial administrators.Similar to the scholars such as Lloyd Best Norman Girvan Edwin Jones John La Guerre and Selwyn Ryan the contention was that the Caribbean was still under-developed since they have not introduced policies or programmes that are suitable to plural or multicultural societies such as ours. Most of my current research focuses around this issue. To arrive at appropriate mechanisms I have suggested that these islands are as termed by Fred Riggs 1966transitional societies. Many third world countries are often caught in what Riggs termed a prism. They cannot be referred to as modern such as the United Kingdom or the United Statesbut neither can they be referred to as traditional societies. Thus one can expect to see systems and practices taken from abroad that are imple- mented in societies in which inherited kinship and family ties persist leads to degrees of dissonance. I explored the theme of dissonance in books published in 2007 and 2008. In an edited volume published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing I looked at reform efforts throughout the world and demonstrated that while many developed and devel- oping countries had introduced similar policies and mechanisms to reform their public sectors the Commonwealth Caribbean countries were largely driven by external agencies such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. This superim- position of policies often resulted in unsuccessful reform. In my ten years at The UWI I have continued research in the area of macro and micro perspectives of reform and governance. A number of my articles that have been published in major peer-reviewed journals such as Public Personnel Management International Review of Public Administration International Journal of Public Sector Management among others and have examined the challenges of reforming human resources within the public sector in Caribbean countries and the issues of discrimination race and ethnicity and governance and the civil society. Apart from my first book Colonial Administration Structural Adjustment and New Public Management School of Continuing Studies 2001 a landmark publication and second valuable contribution that focused on the legacy of colonial administration was The Crisis of Public Sector Reform in the Caribbean An Analysis throughtheuseofGameTheory 2008.This book has broken major ground in two dimensions. First it comprehensively documents research efforts from 1935 to present in five countries Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica St. Vincent and the Grenadines Barbados and Guyana. Second it attempted to answer the question that formed the basis of my discussion in my 1998 doctoral thesis.Why did reform attempts attain such dismal success in many of these islands The book concluded that mechanisms and policies had to be adapted to the environment and socio-economic structure of each country to be truly effective. During the period 2011 2012 my research in a number of policy areas was published as follows GovernanceIs It for Everyone NOVA Publishers2012 The Implementation of Government Policies in the West Indies Essays on the Challenges created by Cross Border Jurisdictions. Published by Edwin Mellen Publishers2012 Gangs in the Caribbean edited by Randy Seepersad and Ann Marie BissessarCambridge Scholars Publishing2013 A Tale of Two Plural Societies by Ann Marie Bissessar and John La GuerreLexington Press2013. My research efforts have led to the publication of eighteen books and over eighty articles and chapters in peer-reviewed international journals and books. At present I am engaged in research in a number of areas and hope to have completed at least four books by the end of 2015. My areas of research include The regulation of ethnic conflict in small societies with John La Guerre Anti-corruption failure in transitioning societies IMF AusteritiesWhose Governance Challenges of Public Affairs in the CaribbeanA Reader During the period 2010-2013 in addition to my research and teaching I served as the Head of the Department of Behavioural Sciences for two years. I also served as a member of the Integrity Commission of Trinidad and Tobago. Both stints were useful for understanding institutional administrations. SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Public Management Department of Political Sciences Tel 662 2002 ext. 82019 82023 E-mail PROF. ANN MARIE BISSESSAR