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156 diseasesthere is strong emphasis on emerging virusesin particu- lar those transmitted by mosquitoes e.g. dengue chikungunya yellow fever and bats e.g. rabies. Much of the research aims to determine ecological and evolutionary factors that underlie epidemic behaviour in order to better inform surveillance efforts and to develop models that may be used to predict patterns of disease spread. Recent efforts are aimed at characterizing host- immune responses to chikungunya infectionin turn anticipating the development of vaccines and therapeutics. For NCDs and chronic conditions the spotlight is on diabe- tes obesity cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. For exam- plethere is work aimed at understanding the metabolic derange- ments that occur during chronic consumption of high carbohy- drate diets associated with risk for type 2 diabetes. The relation- ship of inflammatory markers metabolic variables adiponectin and anthropometric variables with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases was established by staff from the department. Preliminary surveys conducted by researchers within the department also finalized recommenda- tions in educating diabetic patients on the use of glucometer insulin administration and a healthy lifestyle for proper blood glucose levels. The effects of high calorie intake on the brain and possible links to Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease are also under investigation. Activity also concentrates on the use of natural products herbal medicine in the treatment of wound healing diabetes cancer and hypertension and bioinformatics approaches which are being used to determine the adaptation of cancer clones to survive therapeutic regimes. Department of Paraclinical Sciences The department of Paraclinical Sciences offers several MSc MPhil and PhD programmes to train and better equip graduates in their specific fields of interest.Department staff are actively involved in asthma and other allergic disorder research.Researchers from the department conducted a survey of allergic asthma rhinitis and eczema among over 8000 school-aged children in Trinidad and Tobago and this has contributed to the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood. In terms of chronic disease management work led by the Department of Paraclinical and Preclinical Sciences has shown that type 2 diabetic patients at primary care settings in Trinidad and Tobago have poor glycae- mia control. A follow-up study on self-blood glucose monitoring has demonstrated the benefits of empowering patients to take the management and care of their blood glucose levels out of the laboratories to their own homes. Researchers from Pre- and Paraclinical Sciences are studying the use of natural products in the treatment of diabetesepilepsy and peptic ulcer. Department of Clinical Medical Sciences This department provides several DM MSc MPhil and PhD programmes in various specialties.The faculty has been involved in several national surveys of the nutritional status of the general population. There have also been community-based interven- tions in the reduction of disease burden resulting in the genera- tion of data that assists in informing regional policy makers. Additionally the FMS researchers are playing a major role in the Regional Non-Communicable Diseases Surveillance System for advances in the regions capacity to deliver cost-effective health services associated with NCDs. The diabetes surveillance study funded by the Helen Bhagwansingh Diabetes Education Research Prevention Institute DERPI has screened over 66000 primary and secondary school students for diabetes from which the study recommended intervention with healthy life style education in preventing the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in school children. The Department of Clinical Medical Sciences is also involved in a wide range of research activities with extensions in the area of mental health and neuroscience. These include work on mental health and interventions in the prison population a nationwide study on the prevalence of dementia and its socio-economic impact in conjunction with the Centre for Health Economics early detec- tion of dementia using antibody testing depression substance abuse psychosis and risk factors for schizophrenia. Research into sexual abuse continues partnering with the Institute for Gender and Development Studies and ongoing studies in addressing the hypothesis that ethnicity is a significant determinant in the embry- onic response to changes in cellular environment and accounts in part for the variation in incidence and the development of NCDs. A group of researchers in collaboration with other departments is also actively involved in research into asthma and chronic obstruc- tive pulmonary disease. Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences The Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences offers several DM programmes comprising emergency medicine anesthesia and intensive care surgery obstetrics and gynecology ophthalmology in addition to others. All members of staff are actively involved in research within the department such as hypospadias carcinomas cholecystectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Lecturers are encour- aged to attend various regional and international conferences with the opportunity to present their work in these forums. School of Veterinary Medicine The School of Veterinary Medicine SVM undertakes various research activities that broadly aim to improve animal health and welfare and safeguard food supply in order to improve the quality of human life.Latelythe SVM spearheaded the One Health concept thus aligning the majority of research activities towards this global initiative. Driving this concept is an understanding of the interac- tions between animals wild and domestic the environment and humans as essentials in alleviating infectious diseases of both animals and humans. Noteworthy several synergistic research activities among SVM and the School of Medicine act to further promote this concept. Worthy of highlighting are relationships in animal models of some human diseases along with the use of animals as environmental sentinels unraveling the genetic links in bacteria that cause urinary tract infections or neonatal meningitis in humans with those carried by poultry research into vector-borne infections of humans and animals and research on livestock- associated infections of human MRSA. School of Nursing Research work centred on epidemiology public health and health promotion emanates from all schools and include studies on management of HIV-AIDS caregiver burden and dementia the health and socioeconomic position of the agedevaluation of health