Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
Page 37
Page 38
Page 39
Page 40
Page 41
Page 42
Page 43
Page 44
Page 45
Page 46
Page 47
Page 48
Page 49
Page 50
Page 51
Page 52
Page 53
Page 54
Page 55
Page 56
Page 57
Page 58
Page 59
Page 60
Page 61
Page 62
Page 63
Page 64
Page 65
Page 66
Page 67
Page 68
Page 69
Page 70
Page 71
Page 72
Page 73
Page 74
Page 75
Page 76
Page 77
Page 78
Page 79
Page 80
Page 81
Page 82
Page 83
Page 84
Page 85
Page 86
Page 87
Page 88
Page 89
Page 90
Page 91
Page 92
Page 93
Page 94
Page 95
Page 96
Page 97
Page 98
Page 99
Page 100
Page 101
Page 102
Page 103
Page 104
Page 105
Page 106
Page 107
Page 108
Page 109
Page 110
Page 111
Page 112
Page 113
Page 114
Page 115
Page 116
Page 117
Page 118
Page 119
Page 120
Page 121
Page 122
Page 123
Page 124
Page 125
Page 126
Page 127
Page 128
Page 129
Page 130
Page 131
Page 132
Page 133
Page 134
Page 135
Page 136
Page 137
Page 138
Page 139
Page 140
Page 141
Page 142
Page 143
Page 144
Page 145
Page 146
Page 147
Page 148
Page 149
Page 150
Page 151
Page 152
Page 153
Page 154
Page 155
Page 156
Page 157
Page 158
Page 159
Page 160
Page 161
Page 162
Page 163
Page 164
Page 165
Page 166
Page 167
Page 168
Page 169
Page 170
Page 171
Page 172
Page 173
Page 174
Page 175
Page 176
Page 177
Page 178
Page 179
Page 180
Page 181
Page 182
Page 183
Page 184
Page 185
Page 186
Page 187
Page 188
Page 189
Page 190
Page 191
Page 192
Page 193
Page 194
Page 195
Page 196
Page 197
Page 198
Page 199
Page 200
Page 201
Page 202
Page 203
Page 204
Page 205
Page 206
Page 207
Page 208
Page 209
Page 210
Page 211
Page 212
12 The St. Augustine Campus of The University of the West Indies is pleased to publish its second research publication in commemo- ration of its 55th anniversary. The first ever research publication for our Campus was produced in 2010 to mark our golden 50th anniversary. These research publications allow us to share periodically the valuable research component at The UWI while at the same time showcasing the rich intellectual talent that resides within our Campus at the professorial level. Research is one of the most important remits of our mandate as a University and represents one of six core perspectives of The UWIs Strategic Plan 2012 - 2017. Research has always had a special place at The University of the West Indies and this has distinguished us from other universities in the English-speaking Caribbean for over six decades. No other regional tertiary level institution has contributed to the development of our society through research like The UWI has with a focus on tropical agriculture education engineering the sciences law medical sciences history literature cultural arts social sciences and the list goes on.In this regardour University continues to contribute to the growth and development of our country and region through a deeper examination of our environment and the creation of new knowledge. Thus far despite being a relatively young institution with limited research resources we are extremely proud of our efforts. Making Research Relevant and Impacting While The UWI has for decades produced excellent research on matters pertaining to Caribbean development and by exten- sion that of small island states it is also important to note that as the financial environment becomes even more uncertain funding to universities worldwide is shrinking. In addition universities are increasingly being asked to account for the relevance and impact of their research. It is within this context that The UWI must continue to work extremely thoughtfully and purposefully to ensure the continued value and impact of its research efforts through research mobilization research dissemination research application and research translation. The UWI will remain focused on research development and innovation as one of its core pillars. I am of the firm belief that whatever progress we make in our respective fields of research must be applicable in a real sense to the wider public - from professionals with letters to anyone else spanning the spectrum of society.All the stakeholders whom we serve in particular the people of Trinidad and Tobago and the wider Caribbean region must feel the impact of our research our research must promote a better quality of life for the vast majority of our citizens. We must therefore always endeavour to take our research out of the realm of the arcaneand place it into the homes the businesses the hospitals the farms the schools the industries and the playing fields of our stakeholders and policy makers in the form of new products processes policies and systems. Our research must be brought to life. We must play a fundamental role in society not only in the pursuit of new knowledge and understanding but also in our efforts to bring about positive change and transformation through innovation and the application of our research to the everyday needs of our societies. This approach will ensure that we have a wide cross section of supportive and enthusiastic stakeholders from the public and private sectors who will continue to support us. Making research relevant and impacting has been the central philosophy behind the creation of The UWI-Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund RDI Fund. Established in 2012 this fund supports and promotes multi- disciplinary research projects that address pressing issues in six thematic areas that are directly related to national and regional development including - Climate Change and Environmental Issues Crime Violence and Citizen Security Economic Diversifi- cation and Sector Competitiveness Finance and Entrepreneur- shipPublic Healthand Technology and Society.By focusing our research on pressing societal needs we are certain that we would have maximum impact on the lives of the people we serve in our communities. When industry partners research institutions civil society organizations government agencies private sector agencies professional associations and many more groups including the average citizen on the street can feel the impact of our research we will have reached a great destination. We must recognize however that remaining relevant to all our stakeholders is indeed a timeless missionand therefore we must continuously endeavour to reinvent and reposition ourselves in the dynamic global climate in which we operate. Researchers at The UWI must constantly ask them- selves How can the research that I conduct the information that I have gathered and the knowledge that I have found be specifically applied to consequential problems How can my research be of assistance to individuals and institutions alike These are the questions we must act upon as we continue to publish in the leading journals of our disciplines if we are to MESSAGE FROM THE CAMPUS PRINCIPAL FOREWORD