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164 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Veterinary Anatomy Head Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 4205 E-mail PROF. ANDREW ADOGWA My main research areas are anatomy gross and microscopic neuroanatomy neuropathology and congenital malformations. I have tried to tailor my research to the local environment. I have collaborated with colleagues in the Faculty of Food and Agricul- ture and with colleagues in the School of Human Medicine Faculty of Medical Sciences. Many postgraduate students Masters and PhD helped with aspects of the research. My research in neuroanatomy is ongoing and involves mainly studies on brainstem nuclei of various species of animals especially the extrapyramidal systems of the locomotor system. This has led to my involvement in research in neurodegenerative diseases especially in swayback disease in Trinidad. Swayback disease occurs in lambs and kids in which it causes neurodegen- erative changes in various parts of the brain but most pronounced changes occur in the extrapyramidal system. We were able to confirm for the first time the existence of swayback in Trinidad on the basis of the neurodegenerative changes in the brains of the animals involved. This disease is caused by copper deficiency. We were able to show perhaps for the first time that helminths play a role in copper deficiency that ultimately results in swayback disease. From our research it became clear that antihelminth resistance might occur in Trinidad because animals that were supposed to have been dewormed were producing swayback lambs and kids. Following from these studies it has now been confirmed that there is antihelminth resistance in Trinidad. My recent research in this area has been on the neuro- anatomy of the brainstem of the echolocating bats with empha- sis on the brainstem nuclei of the auditory pathway. These bats have a very acute sense of hearing. The studies on the brainstem of these bats are ongoing but our results so far have shown major differences in the cytoarchitecture of these bats compared to the non-echolocating bats. Trinidad has a rich variety of bat species. My main preoccupation in recent years has been in the study of the anatomy of wildlife in the region. This is ongoing and involves several postgraduate students. These studies are impor- tant as wildlife farming is on the increase and information on the anatomy will help with production of these species of animals in captivity.The information may be useful to veterinarians who will be called upon to treat these animals. The studies have involved the digestive and reproductive organs mainly. The agouti is the species most exhaustively studied. Other species like the opossum are also being studied. An example of how vital simple information may be is the fact that the agouti a rodent lacks sweat glands. Because of this agouti in the wild are more active in the night when it is cooler. When in captivity the agouti may be exposed to heat stress with consequent reduction in libido and reproductive performance.Our work in this species has been the most authoritative on the male and female reproductive systems of these animals.Extensive work has been carried out on the anatomy of the male reproductive system of the agouti including gross and histological studies semen evaluation and storage ejaculation and accessory sex organs. Similar studies on the female reproductive system which include gross and histological studies and hormonal studieshave provided us with useful information on how best to breed the agouti in captivity. These studies are being extended to other wildlife species. The results of these studies will impact on the production of these species in captivity and consequently on meeting the protein needs of the region. Another area of interest is congenital malformations. Congenital malformations in animals mirror environmental contamination. Some of them are sporadic but when they occur in large numbers in certain areasthey may indicate environmen- tal contamination. I have collected and studied congenital malformations in animals from various parts of Trinidad. This research is ongoing. Lungs of a cow