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EditorPatricia Mohammed Commissioned by the the Office of the Campus PrincipalProfessor Clement Sankat Tel868 662 2002 ext. 82183 2015 The University of the West Indies St Augustine All rights reserved. c TABLE OF CONTENTS 06 EditorialAdvancing Knowledge Impacting Lives Professor Patricia Mohammed 12 Message from the Campus Principal - Prof.Clement Sankat 16 Message from the UWI Office of Research Prof.Wayne Hunte 20 Meeting Research Impact Needs Prof.Kit Fai Pun 24 The UWI Research and Development Impact Fund Mrs.Stacy Richards-Kennedy FOREWORDFOREWORDFOREWORDFOREWORD 29 FFA FACULTY RESEARCH Prof.Mattias BomanDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 34 Prof.Neela Badrie 36 Prof.Mattias Boman 38 Prof.Gary Garcia 42 Prof.Carlisle A.Pemberton 44 Prof.Pathmanathan Umaharan FACULTY OF FOOD AGRICULTUREFACULTY OF FOOD AGRICULTURE 49 FHE FACULTY RESEARCH Dr.Elizabeth Walcott-HackshawDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 54 Prof.Funso Aiyejina 56 Prof.Beatrice Boufoy-Bastick FACULTY OF HUMANITIES EDUCATIONFACULTY OF HUMANITIES EDUCATION 61 ENG FACULTY RESEARCH Dr.Carmen RiveraDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 66 Prof.Goutam Banerjee 68 Prof.Brian Copeland 70 Prof.Edwin Ekwue 72 Prof.Stephan Gift 75 Prof.Andrew Jupiter 76 Prof.Winston Lewis 80 Prof.Kit Fai Pun 82 Prof.Clement K.Sankat 84 Prof.Gyan Shrivastava 88 Prof.Chanan Singh Syan 90 Prof. Jeremy Brent Wilson FACULTY OF ENGINEERINGFACULTY OF ENGINEERING 95 FST FACULTY RESEARCH Dr.Adesh RamsubhagDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 100 Prof.John Agard 102 Prof.Bal Swaroop Bhatt 104 Prof.Dave Chadee 106 Prof.Adrian Hailey 108 Prof.Patrick Hosein 112 Prof.Jayaraj Jayaraman 114 Prof.Anderson Maxwell 116 Prof.Indar Ramnarine 118 Prof.Satpal Sekhon 120 Prof.Gurdial Singh 122 Prof.Christopher Starr FACULTY OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGYFACULTY OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY 127 FSS FACULTY RESEARCH Dr.Nasser MustapherDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 131 Prof.Moawia Alghalith 132 Prof.Surendra Arjoon 134 Prof.Ann Marie Bissessar 136 Prof.Derek Chadee 140 Prof.Andy Knight 142 Prof.Rajendra Ramlogan 144 Prof.Patrick Kent Watson 148 Prof.Patricia Mohammed 150 Prof.Rhoda Reddock Deputy Principal FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCESFACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 155 FMS FACULTY RESEARCH Prof.Shivananda NayakDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 160 Prof.Jonas Addae 162 Prof.Abiodun Adesiyun 164 Prof.Andrew Adogwa 166 Prof.Patrick Akpaka 168 Prof.Bharat Bassaw 170 Prof.Asoke Basu 172 Prof.Christine Carrington 174 Prof.Francis Dziva 176 Prof.Chidum Ezenwaka 180 Prof.Gerard Hutchinson 182 Prof.Amanda McRae 184 Prof.Vijay Naraynsingh 186 Prof.Shivananda Nayak 188 Prof.Jose Ortega 190 Prof.Christopher Oura 192 Prof.Samuel Ramsewak 194 Prof.Terence Seemungal 196 Prof.Hariharan Seetharaman 199 Prof.Surujpaul Teelucksingh FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCESFACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES LAWLAW 201 LAW FACULTY RESEARCH Mrs.Alicia Elias-RobertsDeputy Dean Graduate Studies Research 204 Prof.Rosemarie Antoine Dean of Faculty INSTITUTE FOR GENDER DEVELOPMENTINSTITUTE FOR GENDER DEVELOPMENT STUDIESSTUDIES Chatham is a small community in Trinidad heading south from Point Fortin in the county of St Patrick. The Chatham Youth Camp is currently used among other things to train young men in the arts of communication and life skills engaging them through sport to discipline both minds and bodies. The site has a pleasant and pastoral prospect tree-filled green hills alternat- ing with lush valleys and the soughing leaves of elegant bamboo limbs are the backdrop for agile boys in red and black dribbling a football. This seems a long way from the classrooms and laboratories of The University of the West Indies. Yet here was another field for research engagement of our scholars and students through a project of a team of scholars from the Faculty of Social Sciences. We were piloted next to the local farmers market in Point Fortin. The row of white tents sheltered a profusion of vegeta- bles fruit sellers buyers hagglers and now us a film crew who comes to steal part of the scenery. Hilenes cocoa powder was a hit the rich rose sienna smells summoning up the taste of the old-fashioned Trinidadian flavourful and healthy cocoa tea and an instant reminder of the efforts of the Cocoa Research Unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture to resuscitate the regional and global value of Trinidads cocoa industry and products. From village to cityfrom farms to laboratoryfrom houses to institutions the work of The UWI researchers and scholars reaches deep into the lives of our people in this society in the region and abroad. This is not common knowledge. The publi- cations and scholarly writing produced to stretch the bounda- ries of knowledge further are consumed primarily within the academy. The connection between what we do on paper how we translate theories into practice and how we are informed by lived realities is not manifestly clear to those who are served by education. Universities have always looked at the way they benefit society. Yet most academics first have to think about the academic impact of their work about publications in top journals about citations and about influencing others to use or expand their research or ideas. This is still crucial to the way in which knowledge making invention and innovation must proceed but increasingly over the last two decades universi- ties have had to engage in more conscious appraisal of the non-academic impact of researchthe short as well as long-term impact outside of the academic realm. The primary goal of this publication is to explore how the knowledge advanced in different disciplines and specialized research centres at The University of the West Indies makes a difference to the quality of lives and the livelihoods of the people it serves. Advancing Knowledge World class research produces knowledge that generates wealth and fuels the economy as much as it influences ideas about the way the society might better govern itself or manage its resources. As the society becomes more literate and educated people are also more discerning and demanding of how information generated by universities may solve problems they are faced with. We must also be viewed as an incubator for new ideas for the present and the future. Sometimes research can take a very long time before its impact is realized.The University of the West Indies at St. Augustine is entrusted with the respon- sibility of advancing education and creating new knowledge through excellence in teaching research innovation public service intellectual leadership and outreach in order to support development of the Caribbean region and beyond. Impacting lives We generate communities of learning and train cadres of profes- sionals who immediately put their knowledge and skills to work in institutions and a range of work environments. Through research that is carried out in a dynamic partnership with indus- try civil society and government The University of the West Indies also creates synergies for development turning pioneering research into commercial products and policies and delivering tangible benefits to a society and region. It is important that research successes reach the populations that we serve. In doing so The University of the West Indies is fulfilling its responsibility for the care and protection of the populations we serve and our role as an agent of transformation. Visibility and Accessibility of our Research Universities must increase the visibility of their research to demon- strate the contribution they make to the knowledge economy improve their chances in the competition for government research funding and position ourselves well to work with global funders industry partners and communities alike.This publication updates with a new emphasis on research impact the production of the previous Decades of Research PublicationOasis of Ideas Documentary Film 2010. The subsequent rolling out of the ADVANCING KNOWLEDGE IMPACTING LIVES EDITORIAL 06 07 Kalid RuizParticipant MYPATH Camp Chatham Faculty of Social Sciences Community Project. 08 Research Development Impact Fund under the Office of the Campus Principal also signaled a need for a centralized reposi- tory on the UWI website that foregrounds the activities under- taken in Research at The UWI St Augustine. This publication is accompanied by a series of eight short films that are hosted online httpssta.uwi.edurdifundEventsandHighlights.asp. We are working towards a drop down menu Research and Innovation on the UWI website becoming the home base and link to all research documentation available on the UWI includ- ing the searchable Research Data base on all faculty as devel- oped by the Office of Research Development and Knowledge Transfer relevant research and research films from faculties institutes and units.This will provide a focal point on the website to also capture events that are centred around research and innovation such as Research Expos Research Day and outstand- ing graduate research at PhD level. While researchers are mindful of which aspects of their research might be posted online or published prematurelyopen access brings benefits for a variety of constituencies. Research- ers gain from the increased usage and impact of their work and the institutions benefit from the aggregated usage and impact of their researchers. Society benefits from better technology transfer better diffusion of know-how and from creating a better-informed population. All of these initiatives to create a more integrated and impactful flow of information about research require the collaborative partnership of faculties Campus Internet Technology Services and Marketing and Communication which in its production phase this publication and the series of short films have already brought together into firm dialogue. The publication and short films were the brainchild of Profes- sor Clement Sankat Principal of The UWI St. Augustine Campus and Mrs. Stacy Richards-Kennedy. Nicola Cross joined the team enthusiastically as both Research and Production Assistant while Tennille Fanovich efficiently undertook the project management. The integrated work required to garner and edit contentestablish a design and suitable aesthetic would not have been possible without the support of the following Karisse Jackman Jonathan Scoon Nicole Boucaud-Huggins Dawn-Marie De Four Gill Tessa Ottley Laura Rambaran-Seepersad Arthur Sukbir photographer Michael Mooleedhar Christian James Daren Dhoray Lois St. Bryce Christopher Starr Renata Sanker and Anya de Souza-Pierre of Seaview Graphic Design. The team wishes to thank the professors deputy deans and staff of each of the faculties and departments whose work is here presented. It is hoped that this publication continues to fill the information gap between the university and our stakeholders by showing how much our researchers have in fact impacted the countrythe regionand indeed the world. Patricia Mohammed Professor of Gender and Cultural Studies Head Institute for Gender and Development Studies From village to cityfrom farms to laboratoryfrom houses to institutionsthe work of UWI researchers and scholars reaches deep into the lives of our people in this societyin the region and abroad. 09 UWI input from field to consumer 10 On this special occasion of the 55th anniversary of The UWI St.Augustine Campuslet us reaffirm our commitment to strengthening The UWI as a necessary beacon of light that will guide our country and region towards a brighter future. PROF. CLEMENT K. SANKAT 11 Women in downtown Port of Spain. Our research must be brought to life 12 The St. Augustine Campus of The University of the West Indies is pleased to publish its second research publication in commemo- ration of its 55th anniversary. The first ever research publication for our Campus was produced in 2010 to mark our golden 50th anniversary. These research publications allow us to share periodically the valuable research component at The UWI while at the same time showcasing the rich intellectual talent that resides within our Campus at the professorial level. Research is one of the most important remits of our mandate as a University and represents one of six core perspectives of The UWIs Strategic Plan 2012 - 2017. Research has always had a special place at The University of the West Indies and this has distinguished us from other universities in the English-speaking Caribbean for over six decades. No other regional tertiary level institution has contributed to the development of our society through research like The UWI has with a focus on tropical agriculture education engineering the sciences law medical sciences history literature cultural arts social sciences and the list goes on.In this regardour University continues to contribute to the growth and development of our country and region through a deeper examination of our environment and the creation of new knowledge. Thus far despite being a relatively young institution with limited research resources we are extremely proud of our efforts. Making Research Relevant and Impacting While The UWI has for decades produced excellent research on matters pertaining to Caribbean development and by exten- sion that of small island states it is also important to note that as the financial environment becomes even more uncertain funding to universities worldwide is shrinking. In addition universities are increasingly being asked to account for the relevance and impact of their research. It is within this context that The UWI must continue to work extremely thoughtfully and purposefully to ensure the continued value and impact of its research efforts through research mobilization research dissemination research application and research translation. The UWI will remain focused on research development and innovation as one of its core pillars. I am of the firm belief that whatever progress we make in our respective fields of research must be applicable in a real sense to the wider public - from professionals with letters to anyone else spanning the spectrum of society.All the stakeholders whom we serve in particular the people of Trinidad and Tobago and the wider Caribbean region must feel the impact of our research our research must promote a better quality of life for the vast majority of our citizens. We must therefore always endeavour to take our research out of the realm of the arcaneand place it into the homes the businesses the hospitals the farms the schools the industries and the playing fields of our stakeholders and policy makers in the form of new products processes policies and systems. Our research must be brought to life. We must play a fundamental role in society not only in the pursuit of new knowledge and understanding but also in our efforts to bring about positive change and transformation through innovation and the application of our research to the everyday needs of our societies. This approach will ensure that we have a wide cross section of supportive and enthusiastic stakeholders from the public and private sectors who will continue to support us. Making research relevant and impacting has been the central philosophy behind the creation of The UWI-Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund RDI Fund. Established in 2012 this fund supports and promotes multi- disciplinary research projects that address pressing issues in six thematic areas that are directly related to national and regional development including - Climate Change and Environmental Issues Crime Violence and Citizen Security Economic Diversifi- cation and Sector Competitiveness Finance and Entrepreneur- shipPublic Healthand Technology and Society.By focusing our research on pressing societal needs we are certain that we would have maximum impact on the lives of the people we serve in our communities. When industry partners research institutions civil society organizations government agencies private sector agencies professional associations and many more groups including the average citizen on the street can feel the impact of our research we will have reached a great destination. We must recognize however that remaining relevant to all our stakeholders is indeed a timeless missionand therefore we must continuously endeavour to reinvent and reposition ourselves in the dynamic global climate in which we operate. Researchers at The UWI must constantly ask them- selves How can the research that I conduct the information that I have gathered and the knowledge that I have found be specifically applied to consequential problems How can my research be of assistance to individuals and institutions alike These are the questions we must act upon as we continue to publish in the leading journals of our disciplines if we are to MESSAGE FROM THE CAMPUS PRINCIPAL FOREWORD 13 PROF. CLEMENT K. SANKAT Pro Vice-Chancellor and Campus Principal The University of the West Indies St. Augustine Campus Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82183 E-mail remain the pre-eminent research institution of the English- speaking Caribbean. And so to my colleagues featured in this research publica- tion I say thank you. Through your commitment and dedica- tion to excellence in research you have demonstrated how knowledge creation has enhanced our global reputation as a University while contributing to improving the lives of the people we serve which is at the very heart of our mission as a teaching and learning institution. I also wish to commend Professor Patricia Mohammed for spearheading this special research publication project with great passion diligence and excellence. This publication aptly entitled Advancing Knowl- edge Impacting Lives stands as yet another thoughtful and meaningful contribution of The UWI St. Augustine Campus to our country and region at this historic milestone it gives testimony to the scope and reach of the research conducted by Professors of The UWI St. Augustine Campus. We do this with a great sense of pridecognizant of the responsibility that we have to enlighten and uplift the lives of the people of Trinidad and Tobago the wider Caribbean region and the world over. On this special occasion of the 55th anniversary of The UWI St. Augustine Campus let us reaffirm our commitment to strengthening The UWI as a necessary beacon of light that will guide our country and region towards a brighter future. I am a strong proponent of the view of our founding fathers that the problems of the West Indies will never be fully solved unless they are understood and investigated to a far greater extent .in the West Indies by West Indians Irvine Commission 1945. Let us therefore continue to expand the frontiers of knowledge to be industrious innovative and creative through our research. As citizens we all have the indelible responsibility to do what we can as individuals to improve our country but as academics in particular this responsibility is further accentu- ated. Shaping a better future for all is paramount with failure not being an option. 14 Buffalypso in Santa Cruz field ...our University continues to contribute to the growth and development of our country and region through a deeper examination of our environment and the creation of new knowledge. PROF. CLEMENT K. SANKAT 15 FOREWORD The Mission Statement of The University of the West Indies at its establishment begins To unleash West Indian potential for economic and cultural growth by high quality teaching and research aimed at meeting critical regional needs.Some 67 years later this responsibility has in no way waned and indeed our development responsibility and role in Caribbean societies is felt ever more keenly at The University of the West Indies. Consistent with this in our 2007-2012 Strategic Plan we increased our emphasis on research for knowledge generation driven by the clear understanding that in the final analysis it is knowledge that potentially drives national and regional development and driven as well by a clear appreciation of the societal responsibility of The UWI in this context since The UWI has by far the largest pool of technical and professional human resources for research in our region. In our current 2012-2017 Strategic Plan we retained this developmental emphasis but we made a very deliberate and important shift in our approach. For in order for the knowledge we generate to have significant developmental impact two important dimensions and emphases must be fulfilled. First the nature of the research its design and objectives must be such that its goal from the onset is to have significant developmental impact. Secondly to achieve full impact we must develop mechanisms and approaches that facilitate the transfer of the knowledge we generate to our key stakeholders in both the private and public sectors. At the very least initially this requires creating opportunities to showcase the research being conducted across our faculties departments and centres at St.Augustine to key stakeholders and the general publicwith the clear expectation that from this will emerge the embryonic partnerships and opportunities that will flourish and grow thereby ensuring that we work together to drive the integration of the Universitys knowledge into the productive national devel- opment sectors in Trinidad and Tobago. This is where a National Innovation System for Trinidad and Tobago must start with the goal that it will ultimately evolve into the sophisticated set of relationships between knowledge producers and knowledge users for commercial gain and for economic development that is the essence of a flourishing National Innovation System. The St.Augustine Campus is leading the way in this emphasis on ensuring that our research at The UWI must have significant and measurable development impact. An important initiative to further this goal is the development and operation of a Research Development Impact Fund at St. Augustine driven by the Office MESSAGE FROM THE UWI OFFICE OF RESEARCH Computer model predictions of potential flooding from extreme events 50 year along the St.Joseph Riverproduced for a Masters project carried out as part of the RDI Fund projectTerrestrial Flood Risk and Climate Change in the lower Caroni river basinTrinidadAdaptation Measures for Vulnerable Communities.Grey shading indicates topography ranging from 2 m black to 8 m white.Background mappingOpenStreetMap.CreditsDr.Matthew Wilson principal investigator Vishwanath Maraj computer simulations. Project 16 PROF. WAYNE HUNTE Pro-Vice-Chancellor Office of PVC Research The University of the West Indies Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82005 82274 82043 E-mail of the Campus Principal and supported by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago in which the key criterion that determines whether or not a research programme will be selected and funded for implementation is the a priori demonstration that the project will have significant and measurable national devel- opment impact.We consider this RDI programme a best practice approach for The UWI and we thank the Trinidad and Tobago Government for supporting the initiative. At The UWI we deeply appreciate the support our govern- ments have traditionally provided for our research but we have not been sitting back and relying on this government support exclusively. Over the past ten years we have significantly improved our approach and procedures for developing substan- tial research proposals for submission to external donor agencies and have significantly increased our competitiveness in this context. Indeed for the University as a whole we have moved from winning about TT60M per year in new externally- funded grants five years ago to currently winning about TT330M in new grants per year. Many of these grants are from EU-funded programmes such as the FP7 programme grants of about 18.7 M EU-ACP funded programmes such as the Science and Technology programme grants of about 6.4 M the EDULINK programme grants of about 4.2 M and the Caribbean-Pacific Research for Sustainable Development programme grants of about 1.9 M. However we also have significant grants from GEF grants of about US6.0M from the IDRC grants of about CAN4.4 M from the CIDA now DFADT from the IDB and others. Consistent with our increased competitivenessThe UWI was the most successful institution in competing for EDULINK grants in their first two Calls for Proposals and we were therefore invited to Brussels by the EU and ACP Secretariats to give a presentation to EU and ACP universities on best practice in preparing research proposals for funding support. Because of our success we are frequently sought out as partners in research and UWI is now a part of a significant network of research institutions globally. We are presently conducting collaborative research projects with about 120 different Partner Universities from about 50 different countries spread across Europe Africa the Pacific the USA Canada South America and of course the Caribbean. As we move into the next decade I wish to assure our public and private stakeholders that we are fully committed to ensuring that our research at The UWI is steadfastly focused on achieving significant development impact and that we will continue and expand our efforts to access funds in support of this from External Donor Agencies. However I also wish to note the Trinidad and Tobago Governments aspiration to drive Trinidad and Tobago towards a Singapore state and I note the intention to establish a Higher Education Research Fund in support of this. The success and impact of this Fund will lie in its structure and how it is operationalized particularly on how the projects to be funded are to be selected. Its impact will also depend on how it is resourced attaining a Singapore status will require a signifi- cant investment by the government of Trinidad and Tobago in Research and Innovationwhich should be at least in the order of 1 of GDP in the first instance. I wish also to thank the business sector and other non-governmental sectors in Trinidad and Tobago for their commitments plans and actions to partner with us including the provision of financial support. It is precisely these partnerships this harmony of intent that will allow us together to grow our relationships as knowledge producers and knowledge users. It is the maturation of such partnerships that will herald the dawn of a new era in which a sophisticated and fully functional National Innovation System will be a primary driver of social and economic development in Trinidad and Tobago. 17 Because of our success we are frequently sought out as partners in researchand The UWI is now a part of a significant network of research institutions globally. PROF. WAYNE HUNTE 18 19 FOREWORD Research productivity and teaching effectiveness are comple- mentary to each other at St Augustine Campus.This paper shares some thoughts and evidence on the Campus Research and Publications CRP Fund in meeting research impact needs of staff and graduate students with facilitation via the School for Graduate Studies and Research and the Office of Graduate Studies and Research SGSROGSR for the academic years 201011 to 201415. The SGSROGSR at St Augustine Campus has a mandate to consult with the Campus Principal and with key stakeholders on the development management and funding of graduate educa- tion and research in collaboration with the Board for Graduate Studies and Research BGSR of the University. The annual alloca- tion of CRP funds ranges from TT2.0 million to 2.3 million. The CRP Fund has three components namelythe Campus Fund Medical Sciences Fund and Centre Fund. At present the Campus Committee for Graduate Studies and Research CCGSR serving as the supporting arm of SGSROGSR consists of i CRP Fund Committee and ii CRP Fund Sub-Committee on Research Reports. They both assist the SGSROGSR in ensuring that research priorities are identified and pursued at each Campus and that the objective of enhancing the quality and relevance of research output is achieved. The CRP Fund is to provide financial supports for faculty members including full-time lecturers and senior administra- tive members and graduate students MPhilPhD to undertake scholarly andor academic work and publish research outputs. Priorities and considerations for granting CRP Funds would stress i the importance of the research projects ii the antici- pated contributions to the Caribbean region and iii develop- ment of graduate studies. The SGSROGSR via the CRP Fund Committee also provide seed monies for academic facultiesdepartmentunits to host conferences including workshops. Among the identified research pillars for funding are 1 Biotechnology 2 Cultural Studies 3 Education 4 Health and Wellness 5 Hospitality and Tourism 6 Informa- tion Technology 7 Social and Economic Studies 8 Sustain- able Environmental Studies and 9 Innovation and Entrepre- neurship. Staff Research Grants 201011 20142015 As at April 30th 2015 a total of 371 staff research grant applica- tions were reviewed across all faculties on campus over the period. 306 projects were approved yielding a success rate of 82.48 with a sum of TT9323121 being granted. The remain- ing applications 17.52 were rejected for one reason or another. The Faculty of Medical Sciences has the larger pool of funds TT2684714 for 70 projects followed by the Faculty of Humanities and Education TT1661348 for 62 projects the Faculty of Science and Technology TT1543463 for 50 projects and the Faculty of Engineering TT1224065 for 49 projects. The two faculties obtaining least staff grants were the Faculty of Social Science TT998819 for 37 projects and the Faculty of Food and Agriculture TT885577 for 28 projects. The majority of staff grants were approved for i purchasing equipment software chemicals and agencies ii presenting research outputs at conferencessymposia and iii undertak- ing fieldwork andor acquiring research data. There are also many grant applications for hosting conferences including workshop and seminars as well as publishing research output such as books book chapters and journal articles. Besides some 10 projects were initiated from the Main Library two projects the Office for Research Development and Knowledge Transfer formerlyBusiness Development Office three projects Campus IT Services one project and the Office of the Campus Principal four projects. The Faculty of Law was established in 2013 and there has been no record of a request for research grants in the past two years. Between 201011 and 201314 the number of funded projects ranged between 60-76 and the sum awarded ranged from TT1.97M to TT2.25M. However in 20142015 only 36 projects for the sum of TT1.10 million were approved up to April 2015 although the application process continues. In total 371 tangible outputs in terms of books book chapters journal articles conference papers films and the like were generated from 306 staff grants over the period or 1.21 items per grant. Some of the researchers with impactful CRP Fund projects are Dr. Sephra Rampersad CRP.3.FEB07.7 2011 Fruit Rot of Pumpkin - six journal publications and one conference presentation. Dr. Gabrielle Hosein CRP.3.MAR09.25 2012 Caribbean Review of Gender Studies Issues 3 and 4 and The Making of Caribbean Feminisms Issue 6 and established the Alma Jordan Special Collection on Women Activists and the Feminist Movement in the Caribbean. Professor Brent Wilson CRP.3.NOV09.8 2012 Impact of CAMPUS RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS FUND 201011-201415 MEETING RESEARCH IMPACT NEEDS 20 PROF. KIT FAI PUN Campus Coordinator Graduate Studies and Research School for Graduate Studies and Research The University of the West Indies Hurricane-induced Storm Surge on the Coastal Environment Leeward Islands generated 10 publications. Professor Ann Marie Bissessar CRP.3.MAR10.26 2012 The Impact of Culture on Public Sector Productivity in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago generated three book publica- tions. Dr. Basil A. Reid CRP.3GA 2013 Archaeological Surveys and Excavations in South Oropouche Southern Lowlands Trinidad generated five publications. Professor Rhoda Reddock CRP.3.FEB06.13 2013 Feminist Analyses of Diversity and Difference in the Post-Colonial Caribbean - with special reference to Trinidad and Tobago generated four publications. Student Research Grants 201011 20142015 Of 530 student grant applications received as at April 2015 520 projects i.e. 98.11 were supported in association with MPhilPhD study. Over the 5-year period a total sum of TT7631735 student grants had been granted. The Faculty of Science and Technology took a lead with TT2152348 for 135 projects followed by the Faculty of Social Science TT1736914 for 129 projects and the Faculty of Humanities and Education TT1327637 for 108 projects. The remaining three are Faculty of Engineering TT841616 for 56 projects the Faculty of Food and Agriculture TT823642 for 48 projects and the Faculty of Medical Science TT749578 for 44 projects. Records show that the majority of student grants were spent on i presenting research at conferencessymposia ii undertaking field work andor acquiring data iii purchasing equipment software chemicals and agencies and iv attend- ing postgraduate training abroad. The number of projects disbursed to respective faculties is indicative of distinctive trends. Hence there was a peak of some TT 2.10 million awarded to students in 20112012 and 135 funded student projects in 201213. However there was a drop in both the number of funded projects between 69 and 84 projects and sum of funding awarded between TT 1.00m and TT 1.05m to graduate students in 201314 and 201415 respectively. There were some 412 tangible outputs in term of book chaptersjournalarticlesconferencepapersandorattendanceetc. generated from 520 student grants over the period.This gives a 21 22 multiplying factor ranging from 0.5 to 0.87 on average0.79 per grant. Several student grant projects are given below Shamjeet Singh supervised by Professor Dan Ramdath CRP.1MAY25.17 2011 Genomics of Insulin Signaling in a Rodent Model of Insulin Resistance generated one journal publication one conference attendance with a poster presentation. Vani Kalloo supervised by Dr. Permanand Mohan CRP.5.NOV10.1 2012Mobile Learning in Secondary Schools to Improve Performance in Mathematics generated four publications. Satish Jankie supervised by Professor Lexley Pinto Pereira CRP.1.MAR13.9 2013In Vitro Activities of Fluoroquinolones Entrapped in Non-ionic Surfectant Vesicles against Ciprofloxacin-resistant Bacteria Strains generated one conference attendance this student won the Picou Young Researcher Prize. David Gopaulchan supervised by Professor P. Umaharan CRP.5.MAR11.6 2014 Characterizing the Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway towards Augmenting the Colour Range in Anthurium andraeanum Hort. generated two publications. The impact of CRP Funding on Research Productivity Research funding is always a challenge for the University yet is central to the development strategies for staff and students. Obviously funding has a major impact on the nature and sustainability of research capacity and consequently on the Universitys research productivity. How much research funding impacts andor improves research productivity is a question that has relevance for the CRP Fund. The citation index evaluates the average impact of university publications in a given discipline. Unfortunately it is difficult to gather the citation information to compare the impact of research produced. An alternative way is to count the number of grants and amount of funding provided versus number of research outputs generated. Research outputs are measured in terms of publications by the number of papers published per year and scholarly work such as book chapters journal articles conference papers software and film production etc. Using data from the submitted CRP project reports of 2010-2014there was a high correlation between total number of grants and research output though mean grants and outputs were not as closely related. For instance the Faculty of Medical Sciences took the lead and has the larger pool of funds from both staff and student grants while the faculty members and graduate students from Science and Technology as well as Humanities and Education are more productive in generating research outputs from their CRP funded projects. An attempt was also made to analyse whether collaboration among researchers from both Staff Grants and Student Grants would have a positive effect on research productivity. Interest- ingly the impacts of collaboration are less clear as evidenced in most researchscholarly work generated from respective CRP projects. Besides funding is positively linked to higher degree completion for students who publish. Numerous characteristics impact faculty research productiv- ity. Evidence shows that it is the dynamic interplay of individual and institutional characteristics supplemented with effective leadership that determines the productivity of an individuals or departments productivity. Hence the overall research produc- tivity at the St Augustine Campus is below that of many Commonwealth universities. Statistics also show that many tenured academic staff members have less accountability to the institution with regard to engagement in research being reluctant to apply for CRP Funds. To concludethe university could stimulate the strengthening of an institutional research culture by for example introducing adequate incentives and rewards for academics who engage in research. Conventional wisdom is that teaching and research are mutually supporting. Indeed one of the defining characteristics of todays university is that all academics are expected to be active researchers and active teachers. Research funding is always a challenge for the University yet is central to the development strategies for staff and students. 23 24 FOREWORD In addition to showcasing the diverse and interesting research initiatives of the The UWI St.Augustine Campusthis 2015 edition of the research publication is unique in that it places the spotlight on impact. Moving beyond the traditional scholarly contribution of research activities the societal impact of univer- sity research is an issue that has over the years become the subject of much debate analysis and interrogation. For persons working in the area of research management as well as research evaluation and assessment particularly in environments where impact has been linked to funding allocations it is a contested sphere. Nevertheless it is one that has been engaging the atten- tion of universities worldwide in an attempt to better convey the direct and indirect contributions of university research to improving society and the well-being of its citizens. Despite the challenges of attribution the non-linear process of achieving impact and the extended lag time between research and its effectscalls for greater evidence and more refined indica- tors of impact have been intense as these are considered essen- tial to better justify large public investment in university research. Research impact - the impact of university research on society - is therefore now considered central to what is often referred to as the third mission of the university and to the universitys ability to effectively execute its mandate in contem- porary knowledge economies. Established in 2012 The UWI-Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund RDI Fund has served as an important instrument for strengthening the integration of an impact focus in the Campus research initiatives. It emanated from the Campus Principals vision for a more targeted use of the annual government contribution of approximately TT7- 9million so that the Campus research effort would not be dispersed but rather build a critical mass of scholarly inquiry into solutions to national and regional development challenges. Thus the RDI Fund sought not only to create a framework with six thematic research areas reflecting the most pressing development issues in Trinidad and Tobago and the wider Caribbean but also to put in place a rigorous process for the selection monitoring progress reporting and evaluation of RDI Fund projects. In so doing it has served as a catalyst for re- positioning the relevance recognition and value-added of the Campus research in the eyes of non-specialist audiences and the wider society. By supporting projects that are conceptualized and structured in a way that prepares the foundation for develop- ment impact in the short to medium term and by encouraging university researchers to plan for impact in their approach to project execution activities e.g. stakeholder engagement data analysis reporting research communications etc the RDI Fund is in keeping with its mandate helping to bridge academic scholarship with societal impact. For some this has meant demystifying The UWI research which in the past had been criticized as too esoteric and disconnected from the daily concerns of the man or woman on the street. For others it has meant a re-configuration of the research space bringing in new research partners and participants from much earlier in the research process and the project cycle opening doors to new possibilities strengthening linkages that are critical to influenc- ing public policy and practice ensuring the translation and application of research to product development and process improvement building innovative platforms for added dimen- sions of teaching and research content and of course shaping new thinking on issues of national and regional impor- tance. While many of the RDI Fund projects are still in early stages of execution with on average 18-20 months in on-the-ground execution preliminary evidence suggests that there is already a wide range of impactful outputs and initial contributions to project-related development outcomes which have been achieved. The pathways to impact have been diverse with projects contributing to Influencing Policy Participation of the Ministry of Education in Stakeholder discussions helped inform the development of a White Paper addressing misbehaviour and violence among at-risk youth in the secondary school system. Subsequently there was an announcement by the Ministry of Education in April 2013 that TT90 million would be committed to hire 500 specialist staff to address behavioural issues among secondary school children Achieving the incorporation of instructional videos on citrus farming best practice into the Agricultural Science CSEC curriculum for the Agricultural Science course. Building Capacity Training close to 200 at-risk youth in alternative methods for conflict resolution and counseling through music therapy interventions THE UWI ST. AUGUSTINE CAMPUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IMPACT FUND 25 MRS. STACY RICHARDS-KENNEDY Current post Assistant Resident Representative United Nations Development Programme Trinidad and Tobago Former post Senior Programme Manager The Office of the Campus Principal Training of over 50 community-based researchers in census methods Training of prison officers as lay therapists as part of a wider programmme on anger management in prisons The establishment of and harvesting of produce from a demon- stration orchard at The UWI St.Augustine South Campus as part of a project aimed at revitalizing the citrus industry Training citrus farmers in new production techniques cocoa farmers in disease management and cultivation best practices and cocoa entrepreneurs in chocolate-making techniques Training of approximately 70 graduate students in conducting advanced research thereby developing their expertise in data gathering and analysis through their direct participation in RDI Fund projects. Mobilizing Knowledge for greater research uptake and public awareness Over 100 downloads of the app created by the AgriNeTT project to assist farmers in better managing the production and sale of their produce More than 30 media mentions locally regionally and interna- tionally for RDI Fund projects from 2012-2014 Close to 10 publications in peer-reviewed journals 7 success- fully completed MSc theses and numerous presentations in national regional and international conferences and workshops Several project websites established with high national regional and international visitor traffic. Engaging Diverse Stakeholders More than TT25 million in counterpart funding generated for on-going RDI projects through partnerships and collabora- tions More than TT3.3 million in in-kind contributions from agencies participating in or affiliated with RDI projects More than 55 newstrengthened partnerships and collabora- tions with national regional and international institutions More than 200 communities in Trinidad and Tobago reached by RDI Fund project activities Over 4000 persons surveyed for research conducted for RDI Fund projects Organization of over 20 stakeholder consultations and workshops in TT. These are but a few preliminary indications of the kinds of impact RDI Fund projects have been achieving. They reflect specific dimensions of the broad spectrum of qualitative and quantitative indicators of research impact that the RDI Fund is consistently monitoringcapturing and compiling with a view to gaining a fuller appreciation of the myriad direct and indirect contributions of a subset of The UWI St. Augustine Campus research over time. Keeping in mind the words of Harvards President Drew Faust that an overly instrumental model of the university misses the genius of its capacity the challenge for the RDI Fund will continue to be how to strike an appropriate balance among the most relevant and useful mix of metrics and indicators for measuring and communicating research impact in a regional Caribbean university. After allas important as it is to ensure that society benefits from public investments in researchin relatively young democracies and postcolonial societies such as ours the broad mission of the university cannot be reduced to one that is measured solely through research outputs. Rather the Carib- bean university must continue to be a space for unbridled intellectual debate a testing ground for new forms of research and innovative formats for producing and communicating research beyond traditional written publications and a reposi- tory for a critical mass of indigenous Caribbean research committed to strengthening national and regional institutions and fostering a sense of civic duty and social responsibility among our citizens. ...a re-configuration of the research space...building platforms for teaching and research content and approaches...shaping new thinking on issues of national and regional importance. 26 27 PhD student Kyle De Freitaswith the AgriNeTT Projectdemonstrating AgriExpenseTT app to a farmer at the NAMDEVCO Wholesale Market in Macoya. The app allows farmers to record crop expensesmonitoring production costs and easing their record keeping burden. 28 Farmer in Aranguez field 29 Introduction The Faculty of Food and Agriculture evolved from the ICTA Imperial College of Tropical Agricultureand is founded on a long and illustrious pedigree dating back to the 1920s. Today the FFA encompasses a number of disciplines with direct and indirect focus on e.g. food and nutritional security human sustenance welfare and wellbeingsustainable and habitable environmentagricultural economics extension environmental and natural resource managementgeography and entrepreneurship. With its three academic departments and field station it is currently a strong productive research-oriented faculty. A summary of work being pursued at the Faculty is presented below. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension The Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension works towards the improvement of Caribbean health and nutrition and the development of economic environmental and agricultural policies at the national and regional level. Activities focus on agricultural economics agricultural extension communications and outreach human nutrition and dietetics consumer sciences agribusiness foodservice management and business services. The University of the West Indies Tel 868 662 2002 E-mail THE FACULTY OF FOOD AGRICULTURE Faculty Research Overview 30 The department continues its research and teaching under the following thematic areas Human nutritional status and the impact of nutritional interventions Impact of climate change on food systems and risks for farming and the environment Natural resource and environmental management economics Trade policy and its impact on the regional agricultural sector Extension and farmer education strategies Regional food security Research has focused on improving the nutrition and health of the CARICOM population through the CISFRF CARICOM Food Security Project funded through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund CIFSRF CA5 million. Dr. Isabella Granderson is the UWI principal investigator on this project. This research compliments other research activities geared at improving dietary behaviours and physical activities in at-risk groups. The DAEE team headed by Professor Carlisle Pemberton continues research on sustainable watershed management. This group has recently been awarded the campus research award for the Most Outstanding International Research Project. This project has contributed sophisticated water quality analy- sis equipment to the local water and sewerage authority WASA. It has also contributed to building human resource capacity and generated crucial data on water quality locally. Department of Food Production The Department of Food Production is involved in research issues on food agriculture soils and its related environment.The mission of the department is to contribute to the sustained improvement of the regions wellbeing through outreach provision of relevant education and research in tropical food and agricultural production and utilizationsustainable environment and to adopt a holistic approach to agri-food safety and quality assurance. The major research pillars of the Department of Food Production are Soil chemistry physics and its environment Food and nutrition security and agricultural diversification Food safety microbiology and quality assurance Tropical crop production biotechnology breeding and protection Tropical livestock production breeding and technology Tropical commodity utilisation Post-harvest physiology and technology Some research areas in tropical crop production include bread- fruit characterization improved propagation and sustainable open field and protected agriculture production systems a comparative greenhouse study was undertaken to investigate growth and yield parameters of tomatoes and sweet peppers on contrasting types of growth media. Crop pathology research has been directed at the biological control and molecular characterization of plant pathogens and the development of non-chemical methods for the control of diseases or harvested commodities. The focus of the research pillar on soil biologyphysics and chemistry has been on organic matter dynamics and biogeochemical cycle of carbon nitrogen and phosphorus in soils effects of management practices on carbon dioxide emissions arising from organic matter decompo- sition and soil carbonates in agricultural farmlands use of isotopic tracer techniques soil microbial biomass and soil respiration studies organic waste management and composting. Research areas on agri-food safety and quality assurance include a review of the food safety legal and institutional frame- work assessment of consumers perceptions and attitudes towards the consumption of oysters bioaccumulation and exposure assessment of heavy metals in leafy green vegetables a partial substitution of wheat flour by breadfruit flour to make bread and evaluate its glycemic index the handling of horticul- tural crops and determination of pesticide residues in select local vegetable products. The livestock research has focused on increasing efficiency in feeding systems for ducks and small ruminants and on rabbits. Also new findings on neo-tropical wildlife will contrib- ute significantly to conservation and to commercial wildlife farming as a potentially lucrative source of income. The Department of Food Production is a partner of an European UnionEdulink 11 project for 620000 on Food Science and Technology in Africa and the Caribbean FSTinAC with the University of Botswana as the lead University and partner Universities of Maribor and Ghana.It involves delivery of some of the MSc courses in an on-line format and research on indigenous foods. Department of Geography Research in the Department of Geography is focused on the theme Environment climate change and society in small island developing states towards a sustainable strategy for good governance and local resource management in vulnerable states. Within this theme there are seven core pillars of research divided into two main strategic areas Society nature and culture Environmental laws environmental impacts and political economy Tenure rights the movement of goods and public involve- ment in the urban and rural sectors PROF. MATTIAS BOWMAN DEPUT Y DEAN 31 Environmental knowledge geographical education and cultural conceptualizations of landscape and The public and private spheres in Trinidad Tobago government and accountability. Environmental processes climate and sustainability Land cover and land use patterns and change in Trinidad and Tobago Environmental change climate change and climate adaptation and Hazard perception and management with particular reference to hydrological and coastal hazards. Current research projects in the Department include A matter of survival A life-course approach to understanding the decision-making and economic livelihoods of school dropouts in Trinidad and Tobago Terrestrial flood risk and climate change in the lower Caroni river basin Trinidad adaptation measures for vulnerable communities both funded by The UWI-Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund and Climate change and inland flooding in Jamaica risk and adaptation measures for vulnerable communities funded by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network and run in collaboration with the Department of Geography and Geology on the Mona Campus. In addition the Department is actively engaged in issues of development and climate change throughout the Caribbean region has contributed to technical reports in the area of water resources and is involved with the Partnership for Canada- Caribbean Climate Change Adaptation ParCA. The Depart- ment is an active member of the Global Water Partnership Caribbean GWP-C. 32 33 FACULTY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Professor of Food Microbiology and Safety Head of the Department of Food Production Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82090 82089 83211 E-mail NEELA BADRIE Neela Badrie is the Head of the Department of Food Production and served as the Deputy Dean of Research and Innovation in the Faculty in 2012-2013. Her areas of research and teaching are in food microbiology food safety and quality assurance food processing innovative food product development agri- food risk analysis public health epidemiology and food-borne diseases and nutrition. Food Microbiology and Safety Professor Badries research areas focus on the epidemiology and microbiology of foodborne diseases and on consumer food-safety practices. Acute gastroenteritis AGE and diarrhoea are clinical outcomes of foodborne diseases and pose a huge health and economic burden in the Caribbean. In acute gastroenteritis AGE and diarrhoea are clinical outcomes of foodborne diseases in an epidemiological study of 2145 householders 5.1 of respondents reported having had AGE three days or more with loose watery stools in the 28 days prior to the interview 0.67 episodesperson per year.Monthly prevalence of AGE was highest among children under five years old 1.3 episodesyear. It was estimated that 135820 AGE cases occurred in 2009 84 under reporting and for every one AGE case reported an additional 6.17 cases occurred. According to the International Commission for the Microbio- logical Specifications for Foods only 21.7 10 and 75 of the marine shrimp Peneaus spp sold by vendors in Trinidad were of satisfactory quality for human consumption based on aerobic bacteria countEscherichia coli and Salmonella respectively. Few studies have investigated the consumer perceptions and awareness of food safety in Trinidad and Tobago. Most consumers 83.2 who handle meat at home categorised food safety as very important. They indicated that restaurants 55.0 were the most likely places where food poisoning would occur. The study revealed that consumer education should target the practices of good food hygiene foodborne illness agents contributing factors to foodborne diseases food-handling concepts such as cross-contamination and principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Point system as applied to health and food education. Research has suggested the need for greater implementa- tion of good hygiene practices in the preparation and sale of the fast food doubles. Doubles is an East Indian-originated food comprised of two baras with a filling of curried channachickpea Cicer arietinum. Training in good hygiene practices should include segments on nutrition food safety hazard analysis critical control and preventative measures environmental sanitation and personal hygiene. Public health inspectors need to be more vigilant in monitoring vending sites and to improve the enforcement of regulations governing the sale of street foods. The study found that the preparation of doubles was done mainly by families 84.2 on the morning of vending 81.7 and that vendors were appropriately dressed 99.2 and used forksspoons 100 and tongs 81.7 for serving. Results also found that at vending sites containers with faucets supplied water 85.7 and toilets were not close 97.5. A study which monitored food safety and kitchen hygiene practices by food caterers found that kitchen owners were familiar with food safety hazards and used the preventative Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point approach system from the point of the delivery of raw materials to the distribution of cooked meals. Only one out of every 10 caterers claimed to have logged the temperature of cold storage devices in writing. Innovative Food Product Development Innovative food products such as extruded products and muffins produced from blended composite flour have been developed from cassava. Enzyme-treated sorrel calyces have been used to produce sauces and wines. Cassava is one of the most important food crops in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Muffins baked from high quality wheatcassavasoy composite flours were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the overall sensory accept- ability of the muffin using 405010 composite flour 6.28 1.567 compared to the control muffin 6.06 1.322 and all were liked slightlyusing a 9-point hedonic rating scale. Direct-puffed snacks made by the extrusion process are usually low in bulk density and often marketed as high-fiber low-calorie high-protein and nutritional products. Extrudates from 95 corn flour5 pigeon pea flour had a suitable crisp to hard texture. All enrobed products were liked moderately to very much in overall acceptability with the chocolate-enrobed extrudates being liked most for flavour and colour over paprika hickory and cheeseonion. The red pigments of sorrel Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces contain anthocyanins flavonoid pigments soluble in water natural phenolics and potential natural antioxidants. The 34 Selected Publications Lackhan C. N. Badrie A. Ramsubhag K. Sundarneedi and L. Indar. Burden and impact of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Health and Population Nutrition 2014 31 4 Suppli 1 S30- S42.httpwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.govpubmed24992810 Badrie N. F. Bekele E. Sikora and M. Sikora. Cocoa agronomy quality nutritional and health aspects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2014 55 5 620-659. httpdx.doi.org10.108010408398.2012.669428 Balfour S. N. Badrie I. Chang Yen and L. Chatergoon. Microbio- logical physical and sensory quality of marine shrimp Peneaus spp. sold by vendors in Trinidad West Indies International Food Research Journal 2014 21 4 1279-1288 21200420201420Balfour20521.pdf Ramcharitar-Bourne A. S. Nichols and N. Badrie. Correlates of adiposity in a Caribbean preschool population. Public Health Nutrition 2013 17 8 1796-1804. httpjournals.cambridge.orgactiondisplayAbstractfromPag eonlineaid9294167fileIdS1368980013001900 effects of pretreating red sorrel calyces on the physicochemi- cal and sensory quality of wines were investigated. Sorrel calyces were processed at 60 C for 3.5 h or 90 C for 30 min at 0 0.5 and 1.0 ww pectolase addition in fermentation of wines. Higher P 0.01 overall sensory quality scores were obtained for wines by pre-treatment at 90 C for 30 min 10.4411.0620 when compared with wines at 60 C for 3.5 h 6.889.0620. In Trinidad and Tobago golden apples pommecythere Spondias dulcis are eaten as a fresh fruit and can also be used for chow chutney curry kuchela pickles or red preserve jams and jellies. The production of low sodium sauces and condi- ments would benefit those afflicted with high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Dwarf golden apples Spondias cytherea have been processed by brining and debrining result- ing in a hot sauce with significantly reduced sodium content. Food Nutrition and Quality Nutrition-related chronic non-communicable diseases are a major cause of illness and death among adults in the Caribbean and have become a major public health challenge in the region. Research on the correlates of adiposity in a Caribbean pre- school population indicated that pre-schoolers of African descent were significantly taller heavier and had higher abdominal fat and mid-upper arm circumference than their East Indian and Mixed counterparts. The overall prevalence of excess adiposity 25 body fat as determined by bioelectrical impedance was 14.6 while 2.9 of the children were under- nourished according to World Health weight-for-age criteria. While weight Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference served as excellent correlates of adiposity in females Triceps Skin-fold thickness was the best correlate in males. Low-fatreduced calorie products were originally targeted for diabetics but at present the focus is on healthiness. The global incidence of diabetes is on the increase and may be addressed by controlling the total dietary carbohydrate and calorie intake. A study investigated the effects of low-methoxyl LM pectin on physiochemical and sensory properties of a reduced-calorie sorrel Hibiscus sabdariffa jam with sucralose.A sorrel jam with 1.5 LM pectin had total soluble solids of 16Brix 0.96 citric acid and pH 3.3 and was liked slightly to liked moderately in texture and overall acceptance. Awards Professor Badrie has been the recipient of several awards and fellowships such as the European UnionCARPIM fellowship Rudranath Capildeo Gold Medal Prize for Applied Science and Technology from the National Institute of Higher Education Research Science and Technology NIHERST fellowships from the Third World Academy of Sciences Italy Fulbright scholar- ship TWASCARISCIENCE Young Female Scientist International Visiting Scholar United Nations Association of Commonwealth Universities and the European Union Lome. CoursesProgrammes In 2010 she initiated the DiplomaMSc Agri-Food Safety and Quality Assurance. She has contributed to the develop- ment of several undergraduate courses such as microbiology food microbiology food safety and quality and environmental microbiology and ecological health. 35 36 FACULTY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Professor of Agricultural Economics Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83561 Fax 868 663 0515 E-mail PROF. MATTIAS BOMAN My interest in economics started as a rather biologically oriented undergraduate forestry student taking courses in microeconom- ics forest economics and natural resource economics. This curiosity in turn led to doctoral studies in forest economics and further advancement in the field of environmental and natural resource economics at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU the National Institute of Economic Research NIER in Stockholm Sweden and more recently the University of the West Indies Trinidad and Tobago. It should be said at the outset that most of my research work has been collaborative efforts. I therefore write Imemy and weusour interchangeably in the following it being understood that I gratefully acknowledge all of my colleagues and co-authors over the years although the space here does not permit mentioning them all by name. Early on I worked primarily with different aspects of benefits costs and policy instruments applied to threatened species management. My first scientific publication concerned economic costs of various population densities of predators in Sweden.Building on thisI was interested in the social benefits of preserving a charismatic endangered predator in Sweden namely the wolf. With my colleagues I carried out a mail contin- gent valuation CV survey on the benefits of wolf preservation in Sweden.Moreover this study induced me to do methodologi- cal work concerning the CV method regarding nonparametric estimation in discrete response CV studies and nonresponse problems in mail CV surveys. Based on the collected benefit-cost data regarding the wolf we made use of the well-known Weitz- man 1974 proof to analyze the choice of policy instrument a tax or a quantitative regulation in endangered species management. My later work has involved a broadening of my interests towards economic issues in multiple-use of forests wildlife management and recreationfurther applications and methodo- logical aspects on environmental valuation the assessment and valuation of health effects from outdoor recreation resource accounting and cost-effectiveness in biodiversity conservation. One direction of my work on multiple-use has targeted the management of forests in northern Sweden where negative externalities and open access problems are present in timber production and reindeer grazing. Another direction of this research has dealt with the effects of non-timber benefits as well as price uncertainty on the optimal harvest strategies for a forest stand. Our work on wildlife management addressed the economic benefits of the selective moose hunting policy currently in practice in Swedenas well as the optimal geographi- cal distribution of a Swedish wolf population. The valuation studies have been focused empirically on the economic value of reaching national environmental objectives the value of broad- leaved forests for recreationthe value of hunting and other types of outdoor recreation. The empirical data was also used to address issues of preference uncertainty i.e. when respondents have incomplete knowledge about their true valuation tempo- ral stability and reliability of CV estimates and how income changes affect outdoor recreation expenditures i.e. the income elasticity.An integral part of the recreation studies has also been to compare the health effects from different types of outdoor recreation e.g. hunting and forest recreation suggesting that the removal of outdoor recreation opportunities would result in a decrease in average self-rated health. The study on national environmental objectives was also part of a larger effort on the use of the CV method in resource accounting at NIER. Another strand of our resource accounting work investigated to what extent stumpage prices may be reliable indicators of the scarcity of the forest resource stock in a country. Our studies on cost- effectiveness assessed the relative importance of including information about costs and benefits for commonly used conser- vation goals and compared strategies in reserve selection and the associated differences in cost-effectiveness. As a new member of The UWI being Deputy Dean and lecturer has given me valuable insights into the academic work of my colleagues at our faculty and the university at large. In collaborationI am hoping to contribute to this work in the future and have taken steps in that direction together with some of my colleagues. Our first analysis has been a general analysis of the sustainability of economic growth in Trinidad and Tobago presented at the Fifth World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists in Istanbul Turkey. I hope this will be a stepping stone towards an expanding research agenda with many fruitful connections both inside and outside our faculty and campus. In conclusion my work has been aimed at improving the basis for environmental and natural resource management by increasing our knowledge on the externalities and conflicts surrounding goods and services not priced on ordinary markets. In my own capacity I have of course only been able to address p arts of these huge problems.These parts have been chosen partly from my own scientific curiosity and partly in order to best complement the efforts of the scientific community at large 37 when it comes to solving environmental and natural resource problems. I view research as a dynamic process where estab- lished ideas are constantly challenged and sometimes replaced by new and better ones.This can only be achieved by passionate critical scientists who love their work and speak their minds freely and independently. I think that one fruitful way to reach new and better ideas goes through multi- and interdisciplinary research. It is often a very burdensome process to achieve this type of research but when it is successful it can be most reward- ing. I have had some good experiences with this. By working in often small research units it has been very natural for me to seek intra- and interdisciplinary research contacts. I have done this in the past and I intend to continue doing so in the future. Selected publications Boman M. Bostedt G. Kristrm B. Obtaining welfare bounds in discrete-response valuation studies A non- parametric approach. Land Economics1999 75 2 284-294. Boman M. To pay or not to pay for biodiversity in forests - What scale determines responses to willingness to pay questions with uncertain response options Journal of Forest Economics200915 79-91. Boman M. Mattsson L. Ericsson G Kristrm B. Moose hunting values in Sweden now and two decades ago The Swedish hunters revisited. Environmental and Resource Economics 2011 50 515530. Recent research project websites httpplay.miun.se8080wayback20130624114629httpww w.friluftsforskning.seinenglish.4.10b35ecf10fced35b638000615 .html httpwww.zbt.m.selofindexe.html 38 FACULTY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Professor of Livestock Science Department of Food Production Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83328 E-mails PROF. GARY WAYNE GARCIA Prof. Gary Wayne Garcia received his Professorship in May 2011 and delivered his Professorial Lecture in May 2013.He is a trained ruminant nutritionist.He was born in Tunapunanot far from The UWI St Augustine Campus. His earliest recollection of life was playing on the campus playing fields where he later learned to play rugby for Queens Royal College and The UWI. He obtained his PhD from The UWI in 1988 and has been teaching animal production at what is now the Faculty of Food and Agriculture and also at the School of Veterinary Medicine since 1990. He worked at the Sugarcane Feeds Centre upon graduating with the BSc General in Agricul- ture from 1978 to 1990. He began research in Neo-tropical Animal Wildlife in 1992 at the encouragement of five undergraduate students. He has developed in association with Dr. Keith Archibald the concept and philosophy of the Open Tropical Forage-Animal Production Laboratory OTF-APL and The Open School of Tropical Animal Science and Production OSTASP see website of the latter name. He has also developed the MSc in Tropical Animal Science and Production and this programme has been going since 1995. Recognizing the scarcity of information on neo-tropical animals Professor Garcia started the series of Wildlife Farmers and ProducersBooklets. He has written with numerous collabo- rating authors three books in this series. The first and second books 1 The Agouti Dasyprocta leporina and 2 The Collared Peccary Tayassu tajacuPeccari tajacu both available online at the website of the OSTASP. The third book is The National Birds and an Endangered Bird of Trinidad and Tobagoand is available at the following two websites and The foreword to this latter book was written by the late Mr. Sir Ellis Clarke who was the last Governor General and the First President of Trinidad and Tobago. He has co-authored a fourth book written in French and English on A guide to the use of sugarcane and its by-products as animal feed A manual for farmers and livestock production specialists with Harry Archimde of the Institut Nationale de la Recherche Agronomique INRA of France. This book is also available at the website of the OSTASP. Professor Garcia has authored and co-authored 40 refereed publications many conference publications and has supervised and co-supervised three PhDs three MPhils and very many MSc research projects. The PhDs supervised by him have been in three different disciplines. The first was on Carnival Ecology a concept that he developed and pioneered. The second on Neo-tropical Animal Production of the Collared Peccary Tayassu tajacu a discipline in which he is a pioneer with other Latin American colleagues and this work was done in a French-speaking environment in French Guyana. The third was in the area of Reproductive Physiology of the male Agouti Dasyprocta leporina which was co-supervised with his long-time friend and collaborator Professor Andrew Oche Adogwa of the School of Veterinary Medicine. In order to service the animal needs for the research on the agouti Prof. Garcia has developed an Intensive Agouti Production Unit at the University Field Station since 1996 Buffalypso in Santa Cruz field which is at the heart of his research. In August 2014 Professor Garcia brought the XICIMFAUNA conference to Trinidad and Tobago. This is the Spanish acronym for The Eleventh International Congress on the Management of Amazonian and Latin American Wildlife.This has been organized to help advance and improve the management of wildlife non- domesticated animals in the neo-tropics the Tropics of the New World Central America South America and the Caribbean. It is the only conference of its kind in the world that focuses only on neo-tropical animals and related subjects and issues So far there have been ten of these biennial meetings or congresses in the following cities on the South American continent 1992 Belem the State of Para Brazil 1995 Iquitos Peru 1997 Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia 1999 Asuncin Paraguay 2001 Cartagena de Indias Colombia 2004 Iquitos Peru 2006 Ilheus State of Bahia Brazil 2008 Rio Branco State of Acre Brazil 2010 Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia and 2012 Salta Argentina. Information on all these previous activities can be obtained from the following website The XICIMFAUNA in Trinidad and Tobago in 2014 brought together 60 scientists from 15 Latin American countries and 59 local scientists. Within this conference were trained 323 locals in 15 neo-tropical animal production disciplines agouti collared peccary opossummanicou guinea pigs capybara red brocket deer cocrico armadillo stingless bees snakes of Trinidad and Tobago animal behaviour animal nutrition and non-human neo-tropical primates. He is now in the process of developing the Electronic Journal of Neo-tropical Animal Wildlife. 39 40 41 Tending of goats in UWI Field Station 42 FACULTY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Professor of Agricultural Economics Department of Agricultural Economics Extension Tel 868 662 2002 E-mail PROF. CARLISLE PEMBERTON Professor Pembertons research has spanned agricultural produc- tion and marketingparticularly with respect to the cocoa industry but he has also done considerable research in the area of non- market valuation especially with respect to the valuation of wetlands integrated watershed management as well as national and regional agricultural policy. Research on Wetlands Prof. Pemberton led the Economics Group of the Institute of Marine Affairs Team headed by Professor Peter Bacon in 1997-1998 which undertook an Environmental Impact Assessment and the Formulation of a Management Plan for the Nariva Swamp with particular emphasis on Block B that was being used for rice farming. This study involved research which provided the first valuation of all of the services of the natural resources of the Nariva Swamp. The results showed that the social value of the services of Block B of the Swamp exceeded the value of rice farming that had been taking place there. This study was used as the basis for the removal of rice farming from Block B of Nariva Swamp. This work also led to a number of papers and presentations including collaboration with the University of Georgias Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics This work led to further research studies with graduate students in contingent valuation which culminated in a major contribution to the theory of contingent valuation by demonstrat- ing the existence ofand providing an estimate ofcultural bias. Professor Pembertons research has received international recognition and he has been invited to collaborate on projects with a number of international institutions.One such collaboration with Wageningen Universitythe University of Haitithe Ministry of Agriculture of Haiti and CIRAD Martinique led to the CariWatNet Project which was funded by the European Development Fund in 2009 with an overall total budget of 1121811 of which 281789 was allocated to The UWI St. Augustine. Professor Pemberton served as the Trinidad Project Leader. This project sought to establish a network of local and international stakeholders to promote integrated watershed management in the Caribbean including locallydepartments of The University of the West Indies the Water Resources Agency of WASAthe Ministry of Food Produc- tionand other institutional and community stakeholders. Seven students from Wageningen University and one from Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms UnversittBonnGermany spent an average of three months each in Trinidad working on the project. This exposed these students to research on tropical watersheds and they also contributed to the research activity in the project. UWI graduate students also contributed greatly to the research on the project. The project surveyed land use management practices and the hydrology of two watersheds in Trinidad. In addition water sampling was conducted in the project sites to monitor water utiliza- tion and pollution.This data along with further detailed surveys and interactions with the stakeholders led to the formulation of integrated watershed management plans for the Aripo Watershed and the Plum Mitan Rice Scheme in the Nariva Swamp. In the UWI-National Gas Company Research Awards 2014 the CariWatNet Project won the award for the most outstanding International Research Project. Further details on the Project can be obtained from the Project Disaster Assistance and Agricultural Insurance Professor Pemberton assisted the Ministry of Food Production of the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago to devise an improved Disaster Assistance Programme for the Agricultural Sector in Trinidad and Tobago. This research led to the formulation of an integrated farmer registration disaster identification and disaster payment system for the major hazards and farm enterprises types in Trinidad and Tobago. Agricultural Officers throughout the country including Tobago have been trained in the elements of this Programme. Professor Pemberton has also collaborated with the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture in preparing a Research Report on the Development of a Framework for Agricultural Insurance in Trinidad and Tobago. Farm and Home Management An important area of research with regional significance for Profes- sor Pemberton has been in Farm and Home Management. He served as the Farm and Home Management FHM Extension Specialist on the Caribbean Agricultural Extension Projectthe Agricultural Research and Extension Project CAEPAREP of the Department of Agricultural Extension The UWI. Research here led to the conceptualization design and publication of the Farm and Home Management Business Record Book. According to the Final Evaluation Report of AREP this Record Book was successful in its application since an important output of the project was the distribution and use of 4000 record books during the project.By the end of the project 529 farmers were reported to be using the Record Book in the project islands of the OECS. The Record Book made an important impact in Antigua where at the end of CAEPAREP 200 farmers continued using it. Even after the project ended the keeping of the Record Book was a requirement for farmers to be eligible for the annual Ministry of Agriculture Farmer Field Competition in Antigua. A paper was presented on Farm and Home Management Extension as an Agribusiness Approach Lessons from the CAEP-AREP in the Caribbeanat an International Conference on Innovations in Extension and Advisory Services Nairobi Kenya November 2011. This paper has been published in the Conference Proceedings. httppublications.cta.intenpublicationspublication1773 Regional Agricultural Policy Professor Pemberton contributed extensively to the agricultural research programme of the CARICOM Secretariat especially in the area of Food and Agricultural Policy.He was part of a Research Team led by Lloyd Rankine that developed a linear programming model that formulated a rationalized plan for implementation of the Regional Food and Nutrition Strategy in 1984-1985 in terms of regional country production targets and trade patterns. Then in 1996 his research contributed to the formulation of the CARICOM Regional Transformation Programme for Agriculture which was incorporated in Chapter IV of the Revised Treaty establishing the CARICOM community as a basis for elaborating national and regional strategic policy and plans to accelerate agricultural transformationgrowth and development. Economic Behaviour in Agriculture An important and continuous research quest of Professor Pember- ton has been to explain economic and managerial behaviour in agriculture and the consequences of such behavioural patterns. This research has involved studies of motivational characteristics of farmersas well as dynamics within agricultural industries to answer questions such as Why do farmers prefer to remain small and sedate in rural areas rather than maximizing profits and expanding to become mega farmers Why has the cocoa industry declined so significantly in Trinidad and Tobago Why were banana farmers in the Windward Islands slow to diversify out of bananasas they were urged to do Should farmers really plan their farming based on the concept of Petit Careme Selected Publications C.Pemberton and K.Mader-Charles.2005.Ecotourism as a Means of Conserving Wetlands Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics Vol.372 August 2005463-474. PembertonC.2002.Nariva Eco-toursDeveloping Community-based Eco-tourism in a Coastal Wetland in Trinidad and Tobago in Balancing People and Resources - Interdisciplinary Research and Coastal Areas Management in the Wider Caribbean International Development Research Council CARICOM Fisheries Unit International Ocean Institute University Laval.Editorial UNAHeredia.Costa Rica. Pemberton Carlisle and Marsha Fridie. Valuing environmental damage and determining best use of the Nariva Swamp. Institute of Marine Affairs.6th Annual Research Symposium.July 20-221999 43 44 FACULTY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Professor in Genetics Director Cocoa Research Centre Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82114 Fax 868 662 8788 E-mail PROF. PATHMANATHAN UMAHARAN Professor Umaharans research efforts focus on genetically improving yield product quality and resistance to tropical diseases with the ultimate goal of improving the profitability of tropical crops grown in the Caribbean. Genetic strategies provide for a sustainable approach to improving agricultural productivity. Leveraging the Caribbeans Genetic Resources As the Director of the Cocoa Research Centre of The University of the West Indies recognised as the oldest such research centre in the world and curator of the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad the largest and most diverse collection in the public domain he is spearheading research on the efficient conservation and utilisation of cocoa genetic resources. In a project funded by the ResearchDevelopment and Impact RDI Fund entitled Leveraging the International Cocoa Gene Bank to Improve Competitiveness of the Cocoa Sector in the Caribbean using Modern Genomicsthe Centre is seeking to develop molecu- lar tools to improve a range of horticulturally important traits. To achieve this he has forged collaborations with lead institutions in Europe and the USA. Using the tools developed a number of projects to characterise genetic diversity are underway in Jamaica Haiti and Trinidad. Under his stewardship the Centre is also leading a project on mitigation of cadmium in cocoa sponsored by the European indus- try organisations ECACAOBISCOFCC as well as one on self- incompatibility in cocoa USDA-ARS. He has also been able to secure an EUACP Science and Technology grant to the tune of 2.6 million Euros to establish an International Fine Cocoa Innovation Centre that will showcase innovations along the entire value chain from production and processing technologies to manufacturing value addition and marketing. This will form the centrepiece to provide outreach services to the world through educationtraining apprenticeship programmes and a range of support services including incubator services. The Centre has also established an innovative partnership-in-conservation programme which is poised to become a showpiece to the world. Professor Umaharan has also established a Caribbean collection of hot pepper varieties which includes some of the most pungent varieties of hot peppers in the world. He has in a recent study along with his graduate student elucidated the phylogenetic relationship of this population to those in Central and South America. Further work to study the genetics of yield and yield components as well as to exploit heterosis among the genetic groups is underway. Based on his experience he is developing an International MSc on Plant Genetic Resources Management and Utilisation. He also serves as a member of the CacaoNet Bioversity International and a member of the Caribbean Plant Genetic Resources Network. He is also the Chair of the Adhoc Committee on Plant Varieties of the Ministry of Legal Affairs. Resistance to Tropical diseases Tropical pests and diseases severely affect crop productivity in the Caribbean with losses in productivity ranging between 20 and 80 per cent. Much of the work of Prof. Umaharan and his graduate students has focused around developing resistance to diseases affecting tropical crops with the ultimate goal of improving profitability and includes a characterising the causal organisms and understanding the epidemiology b developing screening methods to the diseases c identifying sources of resistance Cocoa pod with measurement instrument 45 and Cercospora diseases. Anthurium varieties that combine resistance to bacterial blight with bacterial leaf spot resistance are being evaluated for release. Tomato varieties with high levels of resistance to begomoviruses have been identified. Selected publications Hosein F. Lennon A.M. and Umaharan P. Optimisation of an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay for gene expression studies in Anthurium andraeanum. J.Amer.Soc.Hort.Sci. 2012 137 263-272. Gopaulchan D. Lennon A.M. Umaharan P. Identification of reference genes for expression studies using Quantitative Real- Time RT-PCR in Anthurium andraeanum Hort.. Scientia Horticultu- rae20131531-7. Motilal L.A. Zhang D. Mischke S. Meinhardt L.W. Umaharan P. 2013. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad.Tree Genetics Genomes201391395-1411. d studying the genetics of resistance and e developing marker- assisted selection approaches or candidate gene-based approaches to identify resistance when required and e breeding new varieties utilising the sources of resistance identified. Highlights of the work on black-eyed pea and bodi Vigna unguiculata L.Walp include the breeding of varieties that combine resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus CPSMV and Cercospora leaf spot diseases Pseudocercospora cruenta and Cercospora apii pseudonym cruenta. In tomato Prof.Umaharans work included the elucidation of the genetic nature of potato yellow mosaic virus developing diagnostic tests epidemiological studies identification of resistance and field evaluation of varieties that combine accept- able levels of resistance with good agronomical characteristics for release to farmers.In additionscreening methods were developed and the genetics of resistance to bacterial wilt Ralstonia solanacearum were studied. The focus on work carried out in Anthurium has been on resistance to two bacterial pathogens bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv dieffenbachiae and bacterial leaf spot caused by Acidovorax anthuriiwhich together with the nema- tode Radopholus similes were responsible for the decline of the anthurium industry in the Caribbean and in other parts of the world. At present work on nematode resistance is underway with the objective of transferring resistance identified in local Caribbean pinks into elite varieties. These varieties provide an opportunity not only to revive the Caribbean Industry but also an opportunity to create a global tropical Anthurium planting material industry. Screening methods for and the genetic basis of resistance to blackpod and witches broom diseases in cocoa have also been determined and this will form the basis of the genomics studies presently underway. Biosafety Prof. Umaharan is a founding member of the national Biosafety Committee of Trinidad and Tobagoand the CARICOM-appointed Committee on Genetically Modified Organisms. At present he is serving as the technical lead in a US13 million regional project on Biosafety. Publications and Recognition Prof. Umaharan has graduated 16 PhD students and 10 MPhil students and has a number of other graduate students in various stages of completion. He has published over 100 publications in refereed journals has a patent pending and has developed and released eight varieties of bodi black-eyed pea pigeon pea and Anthurium varieties. He has won several awards including the Guardian Life Premium Teaching Award 2002 Best Researcher Award UWI St. Augustine-2003 CARDI Certificate of Excellence in Research 2005Vice-Chancellors 60 under 60 Award 2008WIPO Award for the Best Inventor 2012 Visionary Innovator National Award-2012 Campus Award for Most Impacting Research Project 2012 Best Research Team 2012 and Vice-Chancellors Award for Excellence Research -2013. NEW VARIETIES have been developed and released to farmers. Three dwarf photoperiod-insensitive pigeon pea varieties UW223. UW263 UW255. Three bodi varieties UW-Resist UW22 and UW27 that combine resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus disease and Cercospora diseases. Two black-eyed pea varieties that combine resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus disease 46 47 48 Staff members in the Faculty of Humanities and Education have engaged in collaborative research with local regional and interna- tional partners.We have established links with various government ministries local and regional institutions and associations. Our international partners include University of Twente in the Nether- lands University of Victoria in British Columbia Canada Huang- gang Normal University in the Peoples Republic of China and Trinity College and Syracuse University in the United States. In 2012 the Faculty was the recipient of The UWI Press Award for Outstanding Contribution to Caribbean Scholarship and Publication Activity. Members have continued to research in areas that are critical for Caribbean development. The output of the Facultys research is reflected in articles books films exhibitions productionsconferences and technical reports. The School of Education Dr. Jerome de Lisle and associates are engaged in analysing data related to Trinidad and Tobagos profile in large scale assessments. PIRLS is a test of reading for 9-10 year olds and PISA tests knowledge and understanding in science language and mathematics. This research is useful to the Ministry of Education as it seeks to evaluate the quality of student outcomes and to compare across countries. Dr. Susan Herbert and other members of staff have been engaged in evaluating the Diploma in Education Programme. The research project is designed to elicit stakeholders expectations and experiences of the programme. Faculty Research Overview The University of the West Indies Tel 868 662 2002 THE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND EDUCATION 49 50 The Continuing Professional and Development Outreach Unit CPDOU of the School of Education launched an outreach project in collaboration with BGTT focusing on STEM education. The team conducted workshops and trained teachers in an interdisciplinary understanding of how science technology engineering and mathematics could be integrated into a cohesive learning paradigm based on real-world applications. Dr. Carol Logie is the lead researcher in collaborative research projects involving the School of EducationThe Univer- sity of the West Indies and Syracuse University College of Human Ecology and Family Studies. The projects are national surveys on i Childrearing beliefs and practices in Trinidad and Tobago and ii Health wellness and parenting practices in Trinidad and Tobago. Dr. Samuel Lochan is engaged in a survey of the different approaches to the study of entrepreneurship and examining the lives of different groups of entrepreneurs to elicit how persons came to recognize and exploit opportunity. The School of Humanities The Department of Literary Cultural and Communication Studies During the period 2010-2013 the Department produced three books one feature film 13 book chapters 32 articles and its members made 40 conference and other presentations. A major achievement was the launch of the online publication Tout Moun a Journal of Cultural Studies which is now finalizing its third issue. Another major achievement was the launch of the podcast series The Spaces between Words Conversations with Writers which has broadcast interviews with 96 Caribbean writers. Drs Rampaul and Skeete have been involved in the Bocas Literary Fest the premier literary event in the Caribbean. Profes- sor Aiyejina has been a director of this project from the outset. Professor Aiyejina and Dr Hodge continue to be the resource persons at the live-in trans-Caribbean writers workshop sponsored by the Cropper Foundation the product of their work is the collection Moving Right Along Caribbean Stories in Honour of John Cropper. Dr Cooper is lead ethnographer and junior investigator on a project which is part of a three country BarbadosSuriname and Trinidad Tobago study on sexual cultures in the Caribbean it is funded by UNIFEM and IDRC. Professor Aiyejina continues to be a contributing and advisory editor to the University of Miami-based academic journal AnthuriumThe Caribbean Studies JournalThe Savannah Review as well as editorial advisor of the Journal of West Indian Literature. Dr Rampaul is a member of the editorial board of Redfeather An International Journal of Childrens Visual Culture and one of the editors of the series Caribbean Postscripts Afterwords on the British Canon. Dr Antoine is involved in archival research at the Fisher Rare Books Library at the University of Toronto. She is specifically engaged with research at the Walcott archive with a special focus on his film scripts story boards and drawings. Dr Morgan chairs the Cabinet-appointed committee on scholarships. Dr Burkes services have been sought by the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The Tobago House of Assembly and other state agencies and she has presented high impact papers at six workshops and has taken the lead in four major consultancies for state agencies. She was also invited to be a member of a University-led committee on cultural policy for the English-speaking Caribbean and recently represented Trinidad and Tobago at the 18th Annual Cubadisco International Fair in Havana Cuba. Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics The DMLL is currently engaged in a number of innovative themes including foreign language teaching and learning Caribbean sign languages and deaf communities Patois French Creole revitalisation in Trinidad and the Caribbean language documentation Hispanic and Francophone literatures and film academic writing and English language and literacy. Specifically the research on literature studies questions areas of wide interest across the Caribbean region such as HispanicFrancophone Caribbean literary connections trauma in Caribbean literaturecultural transgressionas well as autobio- graphical writing. The research projects include topics on the theoretical and practical aspects of language learning and teaching speech acquisition first and subsequent foreign language learning the impact of study abroad on language learningrelations between language and culture from a teaching and learning perspective language documentation and digital development of heritage languages in Trinidad and Tobago as well as research into translation and translation techniques. Department of History The major focus of the Department of History is centered on the Caribbean but research and teaching also extend to Africa Europe and South Asia. Research themes include the archaeol- ogy of the First Peoples Caribbean intellectual traditions the African and Indian diasporas cultural history and heritage studies enslavement abolition and post-slavery adjustments nationalism and the post-colonial Caribbean. The Department is a partner in a national research project to produce a thematic history of Trinidad and Tobago commis- sioned by the Ministry of National Diversity and Social Integra- tion. The Department is also producing a social history of resist- ance in Trinidad and Tobago which will provide the script for displays at the National Museum. Several major conferences have been hosted over the last five years. These included In the Fires of Hope in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the independence of Trinidad and Tobago and the Indian Diaspora Conference in 2015. In 2014 the Department also collaborated with the University of Vienna and other interna- tional partners to explore the global impact of the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815. Members of the Department continue to publish is various fora. Major works have been published by Dr. John Campbell Dr. Claudius Fergus Dr. Jerome Teelucksingh and Dr. Basil Reid and Dr. Sherry Ann Singh. Department of Creative and Festival Arts The Department utilises its research to engage in the explora- tion of indigenous as well as contemporary arts of the wider DR. ELIZABETH DEPUT Y DEAN WALCOTT-HACKSHAW 51 Caribbean. Original theatre productions have included Nation Dance in 2012 and Lovelaces Salt in 2015. Traditional mas is researched through the annual Old Yard productions Ole Mas is presented in the annual Jouyvay Ayiti protest portrayals. The Visual Arts Unit continues to explore innovation in its Design and Fine Arts strands which resulted in the Ministry of Design Conference in 2015. The Musical Arts and Dance Units have continued ethnography related to the fast-changing steelband movement as well as music therapy in the former and current trends in Caribbean Dance in the latter. The Centre for Language Learning Under the directorship of Dr. Beverly-Anne Carter a body of researchers was awarded one of the prestigious grants from the UWI Research Development and Impact Fund. Its research topics centred on the theme of Language and Competitive- ness include Beverly-Anne Carter - Language and competitiveness positioning Trinidad and Tobago for sustainable develop- ment. Beverly-Anne Carter Godfrey St. Bernard SALISES Michele Reis Bephyer Parey A language audit of Trinidad and Tobago. James Bukari and Avian Daly - French Language Culture and Competitiveness An investigation into the values placed on linguistic skill and cultural expertise in the workplace as perceived by self-identified plurilinguals. Beverly-Anne Carter and He Min Trading with China Linguistic cultural and sociological factors in doing business with China. Maria Landa-Buil - Bilingual speakers in the local context an untapped resource. An investigation into the language use of SpanishEnglish bilingual families in Trinidad and Tobago in order to make recommendations for the educa- tion sector. Beverly-Anne Carter and Michele Reis Implementation of a language management strategy. Collaboration Maria Landa-Buil works with the University of Ottawa on the Language Acquisition Research Laboratory Film Studies Members of the Film section in the Faculty are immersed in research areas that contribute to the artistic cultural and intellectual development of the regions film industry and culture. They aim to expand and deepen knowledge of Carib- bean cinema and the representation of the Caribbean as a unique complement to other national cinemas. They also target their research to increase knowledge of cinematic traditions external to the Caribbean that are seminal to the regions cultural history. Some of their research topics include a defining of the relationship between Caribbean and Latin American Cinema including theorising the roles of territories such as Cuba the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico as part of the discourse on Caribbean cinemas. Two new Caribbean cinema courses have also been developed - one from an historical perspective and context the other focusing on contemporary Caribbean film. 52 National Library Port of Spain from Woodford Square 53 54 FACULTY OF HUMANITIES EDUCATION Professor of Literatures in English Department of Literary Cultural Communication Studies Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82029 Fax 868 663 5059 E-mail PROF. FUNSO AIYEJINA Funso Aiyejina is a poet short story writer playwright documentary-film maker and literarycultural critic. He is a graduate of the University of Ife now Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife Nigeria Acadia University Wolfville Nova Scotia Canada and The University of the West Indies St. Augustine Trinidad and Tobago. He has taught at Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife Nigeria and Lincoln University Jefferson City MO USA and is currently Professor Emeritus of Literatures in English at The University of the West Indies St. Augustine Trinidad and Tobago. The subject of his PhD from The UWI Africa in West Indian Literature From Claude McKay to Edward Kamau Brathwaite set the tone for his lifelong interest in African cultural retentions in and influences on the New World of the Americas. Aiyejina is the authoreditor of eight books two mono- graphs two play scripts 14 book chapters and numerous conference papers book reviews and encyclopaedia entries and the producer director and scriptwriter of two documenta- ries the second of which is the only documentary on Earl Lovelace to date. He is a co-transcriberco-translator of two major collections of Trinidad Orisa songs. His poems and short stories have appeared in 11 leading anthologies of African Literature such as The Anchor Book of African Stories Literature Without Borders Kiss and Quarrel YorubaEnglish Strategies for Mediation The Penguin Book of Modern African Poetry and The New African Poetry. Gerald Moore and Ulli Beier editors of The Penguin Book of Modern African Poetry describe him as one of Nigerias finest satirists 413. The Character Who Walked Out On His Author his play-tribute to Wole Soyinka on his 70th birthday has been performed in Trinidad and Tobago Nigeria and Jamaica. His documentary film on Earl Lovelace has been screened at the Bocas Lit Festival Trinidad and Tobago and at the Trinidad and Tobago Film Festival and in South Africa. His first book of poetry A Letter to Lynda and Other Poems 1988 and 2006 won the Association of Nigerian Authors Poetry Prize 1989. I The Supreme and Other Poems 2004 shortlisted for the same prize explores the nature and temper of dictatorship especially military dictatorship as manifested in postcolonial Africa. His first book of short stories The Legend of the Rockhills and Other Stories 1999 has been described as a wonderful book of short stories Outlook India.comApril 2000 and as a book that is distinguished by its biting satire and gentle humour and an almost Orientalist karmic attitude towards lifes vicissitude The Book Review Vol. XXIV Number 4 April 2000 20. It won the Best First Book Prize for Africa Commonwealth Writers Prize 2000. He has published widely on African and West Indian Litera- ture and Culture. His most recent publications include A Place in the World Essays and Tributes in Honour of Earl Lovelace 70 2008 Earl Lovelace Growing in the Dark Selected Essays 2003 and Self-Portraits Interviews with Ten West Indian Writers and Two Critics 2003.He is the co-editor of Moving Right Along Caribbean Stories in Honour of John Cropper 2010 and Caribbean Literature in a Global Context 2006. Aiyejina has maintained an active research interest in the Orisa tradition of Trinidad and produced a number of seminal publications such as with Rawle Gibbons Orisa Orisha Tradition in Trinidad with Rawle Gibbons and Baba Sam Phills Songs of the Orisa Paleis of Trinidad and Tobago cd 2005 and the co-translation with Professor Maureen Warner- Lewis of the liner-notes to the Yoruba songs in the 1962 Field Recordings of Alan Lomax Grenada Creole and Yoruba Voices the 1962 Field Recordings of Alan Lomax.Rounder 11661-1728-2 2001. He has been engaged in an ongoing collection analysis and translation of hitherto unrecorded Trinidad Orisa songs and in the video-documentation of Orisa festivals of Trinidad. He has published an original essay in which he interrogates some of the existing translations and analyses of Herskovits 1939 Trinidad Orisa songs as well as presents an analysis of two of his own recently collected songs one of which Silekun has been adopted by the Council of Orisa Elders of Trinidad and Tobago as the Orisa national prayer-song. In his engagement with the academy Aiyejina has functioned essentially as a teacher literary critic cultural analyst and creative writer. He has been at the forefront of the establishment of creative writing as an integral component of the offerings of The University of the West Indies. He designed and started the teaching of an MFA Master of Fine Arts Fiction programme the first of its kind in the UWI system. He has been a co-facilitator of the Cropper Foundation Caribbean Creative Writing Workshop since its inception in 2000. From 1996 to 2001 he was Assistant Editor Trinidad and Tobago Review and its Literary Editor from 2001 to 2002. He is the founding co-ordinator of Campus Literature Week which has become the primary platform for showcasing quality creative works by staff students and members of the general public and an annual opportunity for the campus to host a Writer-in- Residence. 55 Aiyejina deploys the personal ties he has developed in the Caribbean as organising metaphors for the relationship between Africa and the Caribbean and the role that an aware- ness of ancestry can play in the development of the two regions. In both his academic and literary outputs he demon- strates that no narrative of Africa can be complete without a referencing of her Diaspora just as no narrative of the Diaspora can be complete without a backward glance to its origins. He has published widely on African and West Indian literature and culture including essays and reviews on Brathwaite VS Reid Denis Williams George Lamming Wole Soyinka Christopher Okigbo Mabel Segun Odia Ofeimun and Niyi Osundare. He has also theorised on Nigerian poetry with his 1988 landmark analysis Recent Nigerian poetry in English An alternative Tradition. He is the leading scholar on the works of Earl Lovelace and has advanced the central argument that Lovelaces art can best be appreciated through the lenses of bacchanal aesthetics an aesthetics that is rooted in the indigenous traditions of the New World African one which acknowledges the multiplicity of options that defines the essence of Esu-Elegbarathe Yoruba deity of choice and personal will as well as the multicultural imperatives that underpin the evolutions and development of a New World civilization. In theorising African and Caribbean literature and culture Aiyejina has privileged the nexus between ritual and literary tropes. In essays such as Narrating the Narrator An Occasion for Celebration 2008 Novelypso Earl Lovelace and the Bacchanal Tradition 2008 and Unmasking the Chantwell Narrator in Earl Lovelace 2000 Aiyejina explores and analy- ses the various Africa-influenced traditions that underpin and inspire the complexity and multifaceted nature of the works by Lovelace. Aiyejinas recognition of indigenous traditions as the ultimate sources of the inspiration that underscores contem- porary African and African-Caribbean aesthetic culminated in his 2007 Professorial Inaugural Lecture Decolonising Myth From Esu to Bacchanal Aesthetics which has been delivered to enthusiastic audiences in both the Caribbean and Nigeria.In this seminal discourse he challenges the accepted interpreta- tion of the Yoruba deity Esu deconstructs its meaning within the Yoruba and by extension African worldview and recon- structs the Esu principle into an aesthetic and analytical frame- work for the discussion of modern African and Caribbean literature and culture. Over the years Aiyejinas strategic interventions such as his coordinatorship of Campus Literature Week and the estab- lishment of the MFA as well as a his involvement with the Cropper Foundation have positively influenced the develop- ment of creative talents in the Caribbean. He is one of the foundersorganisers of the Bocas Literary Festival which has in less than five years become the pre-eminent literary festival in the English-speaking Caribbean. Aiyejina also serves on the editorial boards of several local and international journals and is an Honorary Fellow of the International Writers Workshop Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong. Selected Publications Director Earl Lovelace A writer in His Place A Docu- Commentary 55 minutes 2014. EditorA Place in the World Essays in honour of Earl Lovelace at 70. 2009 Lexicon Trinidad. Editor Self-portraits Interviews with ten West Indian writers and two critics 2003 Kingston Jamaica The University of the West Indies Press FACULTY OF HUMANITIES EDUCATION Professor of Language and Culture Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83034 E-mail PROF. BEATRICE BOUFOY-BASTICK Fascination for diversity of cultures and languages My fascination for the diversity of cultures and languages has taken me to many culturally diverse countries across four continents where I have lived lectured and empirically explored local cultures in their multifarious forms. This passion for language and for culture seems to have been imprinted in me as a child. As far as I can remember my earliest experience of language and culture was as a little girl of 6 years old in France after the Second World War.At that timeI only spoke French and an American soldier drew a picture of the sun pointed to it and taught me my first foreign word Sun.He also held a can of Pepsi which is something I had never seen.I was amazed at the idea that other peoples had such novel things and different names for all the things I knew. It was from that early age that I have been captivated by the diversity of cultures and languages and it is this continued allure that has propelled my professional interests and motivated my anthropological research into the multiplicities of linguistic and cultural codes. My recollections and reflections on these specially etched cross-cultural events and multi-linguistic experiences later led me to analytically identify contrast and integrate the cross-cultural worldviews that precipitated these personal change events in a 2004 self-exploratory paper entitled Auto-Interviewing auto- ethnography and critical incident methodology for eliciting a self- conceptualised worldview. Forum Qualitative Social Research 51 which has become one of the keyresearch papers on the research methodology now known as Auto-Ethnography Keywords in Qualitative Methods A Vocabulary of Research Concepts by Michael Bloor Fiona Wood page 20 2006 Entrepreneurship as Experience How Events Create Ventures and Ventures Create Entrepreneurs by Michael H. Morris Christopher G. Pryor Minet Schindehutte page 2662012. Development of theory and policy for culture-based language teaching Auto-ethnography enabled me to vicariously re-live some momentous teaching experiences. In the course of my lecturing career I gainfully worked in societies with people who have different ValuesAttitudesBeliefs and Intentions VABI and these rich culturo-pedagogic experiences led me to research the concepts of Enculturation and Empowerment in language educa- tion. My culture-based language teaching theory served to inform my teaching practices in ways that showed a sensitivity to and respect for students cultural diversity and some of which were shared with the academic community in articles such as Embodied cognitive experiential learning in a multicultural foreign language classroom 2007 in Humanising Language Teaching 95 or captured in a video Multi-cultural multi-ability French teaching a constructivist perspective Suva Fiji USP 1995.1 videocassette 35 min. col.12 in.BRN912633.PAC GEN PC 2073 .B68. My continuing search to understand the intended and un-intended influences of cultural diversity in formal language education bridges my cultural research on government language policies from 1997 to today as spanned by my 1997 article Using language policies to highlight and contrast the values that shape multicultural societies Examples from Singa- pore and AustraliaJournal of Australian Education41159-76 to a current cultural analysis of the deleterious effects of neoliberal market-driven education policy on contemporary international language policies as in the 2015 research article Rescuing language education from the neoliberal disaster Culturometric predictions and analyses of future policy. Policy Futures in Education134439-467. My career-long concern for promoting humanist education principles recently culminated in the publication of the four- volume series of international handbooks of Cultures of Educa- tion. This substantial body of work is the fruit of five-years continuous collaborative networking with three hundred and thirty-six educationists from over thirty countries and stands as an open-source forum for international educators to discuss current cross-cultural concerns on education practices and policies at the localnational and global levels. My concern for culturally responsive language policy also led me to investigate vernacular use as cultural identity affirmations in the post-colonial states where I lived. Analyses of these investigations were reported in such publications as Creoles as linguistic markers of national identity Examples from Jamaica and Guyana in H. Levy ed. 2009 pp. 203-210 The African- Caribbean Worldview and the Making of Caribbean Society or in La crolisation linguistique Une revendication identitaire aux Antilles Verbum 3 2012 pp. 31-38 for eliciting West Indian language identity but also in 2002 Measuring cultural identity in culturally diverse societies World Cultures 131 39-47 for evincing the multi-facetted identity of Fiji islanders.My research then focused more closely on investigating the VABIs which underpinned the intricacies that entwined language and culture and led me to pioneer the innovative field of Culturometrics. 56 Building the Anthropological foundations of Culturometrics The measurement of Cultural Identities Culturometric methodology was first developed over a four-year ethnographic study of second language teaching in Fiji. The ethnography investigated the different cultural expectations of Fijis two main ethnic groups the indigenous Fijians mostly Melanesian and the Indo-Fijians descendants of indentured girmit labourersand showed how their different cultural expecta- tions were manifested in different teaching practices that resulted in disquietingly differential academic attainments. I identified three cultural expectations that matched Fijis complex culturally polarised bi-ethnic setting distinguishing between the Indians and Fijians as illustrated in the three photographs. The first culturometric instrument the Cultural Index CI was developed for this anthropological research. By measuring cultural identities I was able to show that the different teaching and learning behaviours that were responsible for the marked differences in educational attainments between the two ethnic groups were the same community and classroom behaviours that maintained the different cultural expectations of the two ethnic groups. The CI consisting of Primary and Relative cultural indices served to sensitively measure cultural identity and demonstrate the characteristics of cultural intrusion resulting from inherent inter-ethnic social mixing between Fijis two ethnic groups.The CI proved an efficient grounded instrument to evidence greater cultural borrowing by Indo-Fijians than by native Fijians as discriminate analysis indicates. The anthropological and methodological significance of the Fiji longitudinal ethnographic study led to two major publica- tions a book entitled Academic Attainments and Cultural Values 2003 and two-volume work Language Education and Policy in Fiji 2010. Following this ethnography new culturometric research tools were designed for scientifically based qualitative inquiry guided by a humanistic idiographic imperative towards self- actualisation. Developing new research techniques and publishing wide applications of Culturometrics New techniques have been added to Culturometrics since its inception and it is now used to investigate current educational social and political issues. For example my book Preserving National Unity Culturometric Rapid Appraisals of Ethnic Inequalities 2012 shows how Culturometrics can aptly serve to assess dispari- ties between social groups which can lead to civil unrest so that these disparities may be addressed to forestall socialpolitical de- stabilization. The findings instigated a further study aimed to disentangle general fearfulness from fear of crime. Simply both the educational and the socio-political focus of my research is driven by my humanist commitment of making life better for everyone.My forthcoming 2014 paper Neoliberal branding of European educational policies A culturometric perspective on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is quite explicit in contrasting traditional self- actualising Humanist grounded education with current Neoliberal oriented educationwhich callously undermines our communal societal valuesopportunities for cultural diversityand personal growth. It is because Culturometrics is being shown to be applicable over a wide range of disciplinary fields that Culturometric methodology is receiving increasing international interest. As a cultural researcherI was invited this summer to give workshops to social scientists at the University of Bordeaux and the University of Bretagne Occidentale in France to the University of Mnster in Germany and to the University of Vilnius in Lithuania where I was also asked to address the Seimas the Lithuanian Parliament on language issues in May 2012 and May 2014. Both of these parlia- mentary addresses were given live coverage on the national television. Selected Publications Boufoy-Bastick B. Chinien S. Ed. in press Caribbean dynamics Re-configuring Caribbean Culture. Kingston Jamaica Ian Randle Publishers.298 pp. Boufoy-Bastick B. Culturometrics A constructionist philosophy for humanistic inquiry in qualitative identity research. The Qualitative Report20141991-22. Boufoy-Bastick B. Ed.. The International Handbooks of Cultures of Educational Policy Series Volumes one to four. Strasbourg France Analytrics.2011-2014.902 pp.1060 pp.1369 pp.1370 pp.. 57 58 Public hoarding in Port of Spain 59 60 Flyover at Churchhill Roosevelt Highway Uriah Butler Highway Interchange Department of Chemical Engineering The Chemical Engineering Department collaborates with local regional and international institutions and agencies. It recognizes the urgent need to pursue industrial linkages applied and funda- mental research and it continues staff development in chemical engineering and related disciplines. The Departments research in the Petroleum Engineering Programme is geared towards problem solving in the areas of gas hydrates carbon dioxide sequestration and EOR reservoir charac- terizationPVTphase behaviour of reservoir fluidscharacterization and modeling of the recovery of oil natural gas and gas conden- satesheavy oil recovery and oil recovery from Trinidad tar sands by radiofrequency heating. Research in the Petroleum Geosciences Programme includes sedimentology of the Talparo Formation environmental micropaleontology soft rock deformation and rock mechanics. The Food Science and Technology Programme investigates local and regional fruits vegetables and root tubers in its evalua- tion and value-added products studies. Other specific research includes the drying kinetics of local fruits and vegetables the production and evaluation of spray-dried and freeze-dried products and the determination of maturity indices in fruits. Food safety food fermentation and risk assessment studies are ongoing. Within the Chemical Engineering Programme some of the main research activities includeextraction studiessimulation and The University of the West Indies Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82200 Fax 868 662 4414 E-mail THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Faculty Research Overview 61 control environment health and safety studies biofuels and biotechnology. Infrastructurally to facilitate ongoing and new research and development new laboratories have been and will be expanded and others constructed. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research Impact Statement The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering provides internationally accredited academic trainingat the undergraduate and post-graduate levelsfor civil and environmental engineers for the design and construction of the built environment.Moreoverit strives for the built environment to be in harmony with the natural environment as well as to be resistant to natural hazards.Thusthe Department concentrates on teaching and research in mechanics materialsdesign and construction management. Areas of Research Over the yearsconsiderable research has been accomplished and reported in leading international archival journals and interna- tional conferences and is continuingin the following areas Pavement design for highways in the tropics Engineering properties of Lake Asphalt Design of foundations in expansive clays Seismic resistant design of structures Coastal erosion Estimation of in-stream flows Impact of climate change on water resources Water and food security in small islands Transport of contaminants in coastal seasgroundwater and rivers Recycling of building materials Use of timber in construction Hurricane-resistant design of buildings Safety of dams Scientific management of construction projects and natural disasters. Improving the teaching and learning of civil environmental engineering design Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering In communications systems research is being conducted in the application of cellphone technology in the fishing industry. Research continues to extend ideas in communications theory and applications. In energy systems a major multi-disciplinary project is being pursued in the area of smart grid technology and its application with collaboration between researchers in the Department and researchers from Physics and Computer Science. The intention is to develop capacity in smart grid technology within the region.In computer systems engineering Nvidia Corporation is working closely with the Department in the design of parallel processors and their application in a variety of systems. The company has provided strong support for this research. In the area of electronic music there has been a significant focus on the Phi Pan project and its commercializa- tion. Finally extensive work is being done in the application of linear integrated circuits with several papers being published. Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management The Departments research and development efforts continue to be nationally regionally and internationally recognised. Between 2010 and 2014 several research projects were completed in areas such as disaster management and mitigationglobal climate change and sea level rise coastal inundation land degradation deforestation urban planning planning policy and legislation land administration and registration systems land management marine and coastal zone managementspatial data infrastructuresparticipatory 3D modeling and mapping global positioning systems and geodetic infrastruc- ture. These projects have had significant impact on local and national organizations in Trinidad and Tobago Haiti Grenada Guyana St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The research has impacted regional bodies including CDEMA and the OECS. Significant collaboration and support were provided by several organizations including the World BankUNDPOECSICURA IDRCCDEMAUN HabitatIDBEUand the GORTT. The work of the Department has been presented at national regional and international conferences hosted by the International Federation of Surveyorsthe Commonwealth Association of Survey- ing and Land Economy the Global Spatial Data Infrastructure AssociationURISAESRIUNDPthe World Bankand Urban Planning Forum and other professional associations and organizations. Several papers have been published in book chapters and regional and international journals. The work of the Department has influenced national policy legislation and improved the decision- making processes of several agencies and governments in the region. Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Research is being carried out in the following areas A DevelopmentofManufacturingProcessesandLeanApproach. Improvement of remanufacturing operationsa lean approach Lean construction practices in the Trinidad and Tobago housing construction industry An integrated product design methodology for function and geometry through DFX principles B SoilsandSoilTechnology Modelling and measuring the thermal and electrical conductivity of local soils Use of sensors to measure soil moisture contents Effect of machinery traffic and soil amendments on soil erosion and cultivation Design and development of equipment for soils and general engineering practice C. DevelopmentofBambooTechnologyinTrinidad The major objectives of the research in the development of the bamboo industry in TT and the Caribbean are Investigate the potential of bamboo as a sustainable resource. Investigate the impact of bamboo cultivation on the carbon footprint. Develop new endemic species of bamboo geared for commercialization. 62 Identification of existing barriers to the development of the bamboo industry in the Region. Suggest integrative models of small-scale enterprise providing technical support developing machinery and tooling and encourag- ing design and product development. Design and build a furnace for making bamboo charcoal The formation of a Trinidad and Tobago Chapter of the American Bamboo Society D. Quality Management Framework in Trinidad and Tobago for Primary SchoolsandSmallandMediumSizedManufacturingIndustries Development of a quality management framework for primary schools. Quality management system for unique small and medium sized manufacturing industries SMEs in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessment of the health and safety culture at The UWI. Computer applications in manufacturing in Trinidad Tobago Investigating the range and effectiveness of the application of computer tools in manufacturing and utility company processes operations and organisations in Trinidad and Tobago Value chain analysisan approach to improvement in a manufacturing process of household cleaning products LRI Ltd. using lean principles Development of an organisational learning model for small and medium-sized enterprises An investigation into innovation capabilities and technology-business incubation for small and medium-sized enterprises in the Caribbean E. Development of Parameters for Brain Computer Interfaces BCI in TrinidadandTobago Investigation of BCIs as a tool for commodity selection for retailers in Trinidad and Tobago BCI Research GroupBCI for autonomous vehicle control F. HeatTransferAcrossLocalMaterials Investigation of heat transfer across local materials including opaque fibres and concrete. Use of wind turbines for local renewable energy applications. G. ManufacturingTechnologyoftheSteelpan H. VehicleEmissionsandAlternativeFuels Investigation into the impact of vehicle emissions in Trinidad Tobago on air quality in the immediate vicinity of congested roadways with the objective of proposing innovative and enforceable traffic legislation. Methanol-Biofuel Diesel Substitution MB-DS ProjectThis is a collabo- rative project with CARILEC TRACMAC Engineering and Methanex to conduct a pilot plant assessment of methanolbiofuel fuel blend performance for Caribbean power generation. Explore the economic and technical feasibility in using alternative energy solutions at Fiscal Services Limited To evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing natural gas to power vehicles in Trinidad and Tobago. I. EngineeringMaterials The effect of adding crumb rubber to asphalt in the dry mix process. The effect of adding polyethylene terephthalate to asphaltbitumen blends. Conventional and wire cutting experiments to determine the yield strength and fracture toughness of mild cheddar cheese and cereal bars. DR. CARMEN RIVEROL DEPUT Y DEAN 63 64 FlyoverSouth-bound lane at Churchhill Roosevelt HighwayUriah Butler Highway Interchange 65 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Environmental Engineering Atlantic LNG Chair in Environmental Engineering Department of Civil Environmental Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82503 Cell 868 686 3699 E-mail PROF. GOUTAM BANERJEE Major Achievements Prior to joining UWI St. Augustine in September 2013 The research career of Prof. Banerjee started with the landmark bench-scale research study on treatment of coke-oven waste- water by multi-stage rotating biological contactor RBC reactor. The study embarked upon the sequential removal of toxic components contained in coke-oven effluent viz. phenol thiocyanate cyanide and nitrogen with the help of properly acclimatized microbial species in a three-stage RBC reactor. It was revealed that when multiple substances are contained in industrial effluentscross-inhibition takes place amongst differ- ent species of microbes in the presence of multiple toxic substances in single-stage bio-reactors. In order to mitigate these intricate problems in the biodegradation of industrial effluents multi-stage sequential bioreactors are a potential means of treatment. Later down the years Prof. Banerjee was associated as a supervisor with bench-scale and pilot-scale research studies on the purification of turbid pond water for small-scale produc- tion of potable water using a three-stage horizontal roughing filter HRF unit. Following HRF slow-sand filtration improved the quality of water even rendering it potable.This was a major achievement in water supply systems in rural settings where underground water reserves are either scarce andor unfit for drinking purposes due to various contaminants such as arsenic fluoride nitrate TDS and others. In another pilot-scale research project mentored by Professor Banerjee the fluoride contamination problem in groundwater supplies was mitigated by adsorption using water treatment plant sludge containing primarily alum aluminum hydroxide flocs along with settled colloidal solids as well as by suitably processed secondary biomass generated abundantly in wastewater treatment plants both of which are cheap and locally available. The outcome of this study was promising as an economic option for defluoridation using discarded waste products though toxicity imparted post- treatment needs to be addressed by thorough analysis and suitable and cost-effective means of treatment. Subsequently several research works were carried out as supervisor andor in a personal capacity. Amongst these studies i Adsorption of dyes methylene blue MB and rhodamine B RB on suitable processed green pea peels GPP and jowar stalks JS which are abundantly available as agricul- tural residues in developing countries 2 Recycling and reuse of secondary effluent by economic means using different types of filter and adsorbent media 3 Management of arsenic- bearing toxic water treatment plant sludge by means of solidifi- cation and anaerobic digestion 4 Integrated treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters by aquatic pond system 5 Removal of pesticides from the water environment by activated carbon 6 Removal of fly-ash particles and sulphur dioxide by novel air quality control reactors. Prof. Banerjee was actively associated with several field- based RD projects sponsored by such international agencies as WHO UNICEF WORLD BANK IDRC ICEF Govt. of The Nether- lands as well as various ministries like MNES MUD MRD M. Rly. Govt. of India PHED GOWB GoTr GoOdisha relating to laboratory as well as field level community-based research assignments both in rural and urban settings. These include generation of biogas in anaerobic digestors linked with community latrine using composite waste materials such as night soil market wastes decomposed aquatic weeds gener- ated in post-digestion aquatic ponds supply of potable water through upgrading of traditional surface water sources such as ponds lakes canal etc by horizontal roughing filter and under- situ filter abstraction of groundwater through radial collector well using river-bed filtration technology pollution travel studies from low-cost latrine pits low-cost rain water harvest- ing systems in arid and semi-arid areas solid and hazardous waste treatment by vermiculture appropriate healthcare waste management for developing countries membrane-based desalinationmanagement of leachate from municipal as well as clinical waste land-fills solidification-cum-stabilization and bio-degradation of arsenic-bearing water plant sludge community-based mitigation of arsenic and fluoride-based groundwater contamination introduction and promotion of three-tier water quality surveillance approach for developing nations and many other such projects. He has also been associ- ated with the formulation of essential tools and criteria for model healthy cities. As a consultant Professor Banerjee has been rendering his expertise and consultative support to various government quasi-government and multi-nationalprivate organizations in India and adjoining countries in the areas of water supply and sanitation wastewater management municipal solid waste management systemsEIA and environmental auditing EAand industrial waste treatment and management. The outcome of the above research works of Professor 66 Selected Publications Dod R. G. Banerjee and D.R. Saini. Removal of methylene blue MB dye from water environment by processed Jowar Stalk Sorghum bicolor L. Moench adsorbent.Clean Technologies Environmental Policy May 2015 DOI10.1007s10098-015- 0977-y Roy P.K. G. Banerjee et al. Study of impact on surface water and groundwater around flow fields due to changes in river stage using groundwater modeling system Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2014 17 145-154 Dod R. G. Banerjee and D.R. Saini. Adsorption of methylene blue using green peas peels Pisum sativum A cost-effective option for dye-based wastewater treatment. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2012 17 862-874. Goutam Banerjee are reflected and substantiated in several publications as many as 68 in international and regional journals as well as in conference seminar workshop proceedings. Research Activities After joining The UWISt.Augustine September2013 onward At The UWI Professor Banerjee is primarily engaged in post- graduate MSc and Diploma programmes in Environmental Engineering Water and Wastewater Services Management and Civil with Environmental Engineering as well as in undergradu- ate programmes BSc. in Civil and B Sc in Civil with Environmen- tal Engineering through teaching research design and labora- tory training. The research interest of Prof. Banerjee is mainly centred on cost-effective treatment of municipal and industrial wastes of various origins with emphasis on reuse and recycling water resources development and conservation. His current research interest include soil pollution in the fragile coastal environment of the Caribbean Region especially in Trinidad and Tobago. In undergraduate level research studytertiary treatment of secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plant WWTP has been attempted using combination of dual-media filtration and adsorption with the ultimate objective of cost-effective recycling and reuse. The study was fairly successful though remained incomplete due to time constraints. In other undergraduate research projects environmental assessment of oil refining activities in Trinidad toxicity-based tariffing of wastewater discharges using bioassay testslow-cost management of municipal landfill leachate and evaluation of ambitious flood control project activities of the Trinidad and Tobago Government were carried out. Such types of scientific studies are very important indeed for Caribbean Islands especially in a fairly industrialized island like Trinidad in order to insure proper governance for conservation and protection of the fragile coastal environment. At the Masters level considering the urgent need of cost- effective industrial wastewater management in Trinidad two real-life potential research studies have been embarked upon viz. 1 treatment of effluent from chemical process industries located at Point Lisas Industrial Estate 2 management of produced water generated profusely in oil refinery units of Trinidad.In the study of treatment of methanol-based industrial effluent physico-chemical processes have been attempted. Management issues are being looked into towards the environment-friendly operation of oil refineries. In the MPhil research programme the effectiveness of different coagulants primarily poly-electrolytes and coagulant aids are under study for the removal or reduction of fatsois and grease FOG from eatery effluents prior to their discharge into the public sewerage system. This study is seeking to recom- mend some suitable materials and viable methods for minimiz- ing the oil contamination problems facing the operation of the existing WWTPs in Trinidad and Tobago. The passion of Professor Banerjee for research work is reflected in the following recent publications all of which have contributed immensely to the scientific knowledge base across the world in addressing local and global challenges relating to environmental conservation and water resources development protection and management. 67 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dean Faculty of Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82199 Direct 868 662 1225 E-mail PROF. BRIAN COPELAND Prof Brian Copeland graduated from The University of the West Indies St. Augustine with a BSc in Electrical Engineering in 1978 with an MSc in Electrical Engineering Control Systems from the University of Toronto in 1981 and with a PhD in Electrical Engineering Control Systems from the University of Southern California in 1990. He has been a Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Dean of the Faculty of Engineering at The University of West Indies since 2007. He was Head of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The UWI from 1997 to 2007. He has lectured in digital electronics and microprocessor systems design and control systems. He was Coordinator of the Real Time Systems Group a UWI unit for developing universityindustry liaison through impact- ful RD Projects. At the RTSG Professor Copeland was project leader for design and construction of the electronic scoreboard at the Queens Park Oval. He currently co-ordinates the Steelpan Initiatives Project SIP which saw the development and patent- ing of the G-Pan a re-engineered form of the traditional steelpan as well as the percussive harmonic instrument p.h.i. an electronic form of the traditional steelpan. Professor Copeland is Convener of the Steelpan Research Centre The UWI a member of the Board of Directors CARIRI. Professor Copeland has won many prestigious awards. In 2008 he was the first recipient of the Order of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and in 2007 he was joint recipient of the Chaconia Medal Gold as a member of the G-Pan development team. He received the Guardian Life Premium Teaching Award in 2002the BPAMOCO Fellowship Award for Senior Academic Staff at The UWI2001 and a LASPAUFulbright scholarship for doctoral program at the University of Southern California Los Angeles 1987 among others. Research and Development Interests Steelpan technology including amplification digital synthe- sis sound field mapping modal studies manufacturing process and derivative creation and development Technology management in developing countries Control systems design including the design of numerically stable advanced control system algorithms with special emphasis on H2 and H - norm optimisation Control systems implementation using standalone micro- processor and computing systems e.g. PCs PLCs with HMI facilities Design of complex logic systems using Complex Program- mable Logic Devices and Field-Programmable Gate Arrays Patents S Patent 8063296 B2 of November 2011. An Apparatus For Percussive Harmonic Musical Synthesis Utilizing Midi Technology APHAMS. Co-inventors Marcel Byron Keith Maynard Earle Phillip. Also granted in Trinidad and Tobago UK France Germany Switzerland China and South Africa US Patent 7750220 B2 of July 6 2010. The G-Pan Musical Instrument with PS in the Office of the Attorney General Trinidad and Tobago. Patent filed in 60 other jurisdictions Trinidad and Tobago 1983 62 of 1983. An Electronic Steelpan co-inventor Dr. Stephan Gift - expired Trinidad and Tobago 1993 20 of 1993. Electro-acoustic pan using piezo- electric pickups - expired Trinidad and Tobago 1993 21 of 1993. Electro-acoustic pan using variable reluctance pickups- expired 68 Selected Publications Bryan A. B. Copeland M. Gobin D. Frederick A. Griffith and C. Imbert Characterization of the material properties of the Steelpan166th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America San Francisco California on December 5 2013. Muddeen F. and B. Copeland. Microphone placement for tenor pan sound recordingNew recommendations based on recent research West Indian Journal of Engineering 2013 35 2 95-102. Muddeen F. and B. Copeland. Sound radiation from Carib- bean steelpans using nearfield acoustical holography. J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 2012 131 2 1558-1565. 69 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Agricultural Engineering Soil and Water Specialization Head Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext 82170 82171 E-mail PROF. EDWIN EKWUE My main area of research is investigating the effect of organic materials on the physical and engineering properties of soils that affect soil erodibilitysoil compaction and compressibility by farm machines working on soils. The understanding of these effects and their consequent quantification has been the thrust of my research activities over the years. My research recently extended into the investigation of the role of organic materials into some other engineering properties of soils like thermal and electrical conductivity of soils. Soil erodibility refers to the vulnerability of the soil to erosion that is the soil factor in the soil erosion process. My initial PhD research focused on the role of organic materials on soil erodibil- ity. It involved the study of the effect of organic materials on all the major factors that affect soil erodibility soil detachment infiltrationsoil shear strengthsoil crust strengthsoil compaction soil aggregate stability and aggregate breakdown.It exposed the two major processes involved in the reduction of soil erodibility by organic materials stabilising soil aggregates by colloidal organic materials like grass farmyard and green manure and acting as a mulch like fibrous inert particles such as peat. The research helped to explain the different opposing relationships previously obtained by different researcherssuch as the relation- ship between soil detachment and aggregate stability. The relationship was found to be positive for fibrous organic matter and negative for the colloidal ones.Also not well understood was the effect of organic matter on soil shear strength. This was also found to depend on the type of organic materials. All organic materials were exposed as being able to reduce bulk density increase soil porosity reduce soil erodibility and increase infiltra- tion rates of the soil. My research also revealed that the type of organic material for example peat grass green manure and not just the total organic matter content was important in soil erosion research. These effects were described and quantified. The effect of soil strength on detachment was described and a model equation was developed to describe soil detachment. Lastly the study involved the development of equipment required in soil erosion research including the design and construction of rainfall simulators soil air permeameter soil penetrometer and a novel equipment for measuring infiltration rates of soils during rainfall. This PhD research led to the publica- tion of nine journal papers in the area of soil erosion research. The Journals include Journal of Arid Agriculture Nigeria Earth Surface Processes and Landforms UK Soils and Tillage Research Nether- lands and Soil TechnologyNetherlands. On my arrival at The University of the West Indies in St. Augustine Trinidad in January 1992 the methods required to boost agricultural production in the Caribbean region were reviewed with emphasis on the increased supply of irrigation infrastructure and tractors for large-scale food production.Water resources available to Caribbean countries and water demand were investigated. On the irrigation side water available for irrigation in Trinidad was found to be limited prompting research on the best use of the limited water allocated for irrigation.The level of water required to irrigate different crops in the local setting was quantified using lysimeters as well as using the empirical best model Penman-Monteith which was soon discovered. Investigation was carried out on the possible use of sewage and industrial wastewater to irrigate some local crops. Rainfall available to Caribbean countries was statistically analysed to obtain rainfall parameters required for irrigation scheduling. Irrigation scheduling using the computer-aided irrigation system models called IRSIS and CROPWAT was soon investigated and used to schedule irrigation as well as to predict the level of water needed in different farming situations in the Caribbean. The use and implication of different evaporation pan sizes for scheduling irrigation was identified in different research works. Also investigated was the effect of soil compaction on irrigation scheduling of some crops in Trinidad.It was found that the maintenance of an adequate irrigation regime in the soil would help to ameliorate the effect of soil compaction in reduc- ing plant growth.The research on irrigation and related work was published in the Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research JAER UK Tropical Agriculture Trinidad and the West Indian Journal of Engineering WIJE. The use of hydroponic and aquaponic systems of irrigation have also been investigated and further studies are required in this area. Greater use of tractors in soil cultivation in Trinidad and the Caribbean in general will result in environmental problems principally soil compaction and compressibility and so these studies of farm machinery traffic were important. Therefore methods of reducing soil compaction were sought specifically the use of organic materials in reducing soil compaction. The first part of this research involved the quantification of the impact of different compaction efforts on soil shear strength soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance which are all indices of soil compactibility. Research revealed that organic materials like farm yard manure peat filter press mud and sewage sludge can be used to ameliorate the impact of farm 70 machinery traffic on soil compaction.These effects were quanti- fied and some novel equations that could be used to do this were identified. This study of soil compaction and compactibility was extended in 1998 to the wetland soils in Trinidad especially Nariva Swamp where there were farmers who were then using heavy machinery to cultivate rice as well as deplete water in channels in the area during the dry season negatively affecting the environment of the swamp in terms of soil compression and salt water intrusion as a result of lowered water levels.The major finding from this further study was that while the increased use of tractors could increase agricultural production on wetland soils in Trinidad this will cause large scale compression and compaction. Rice is well adapted to these high levels of soil compaction and compression but since it requires irrigation during the dry season this would reduce the available water required to maintain the swamps.Large-scale production of rice was not recommended in Nariva swamp and other wetland soils. Rather a land zoning policy that allows for the cultivation of vegetables and carrying out of other farming activities in selected parts of the wetlands was preferred.This recommenda- tion formed part of the report of the environmental impact assessment of the area submitted to the Government of Trinidad and Tobago in 1999. The soil compaction research studies were published in JAER Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Trans ASABE WIJE and Biosystems Engineering Journal UK. The soil compaction work was also related to the study of the physical and engineering properties of common soils used in cricket pitches in Trinidad. These properties were studied in relation to their roles in soil pace soil spin and bounce of the ball.It was found that of all the soils studiedthe Sevilla Clay was the most suitable for use in cricket pitches in Trinidad.This work was published in the WIJE in 2006 and is to be continued. Research has also been done to examine model and quantify the thermal and electrical conductivities of soils from different parts of Trinidad. These values are required in the pipe and cable laying processes now taking place in the country. Detailed research work involves the determination of the effect of compaction levels soil water content soil types and organic matter contents on these thermal and electrical conductivities and the implication of these values for the laying of under- ground pipes and cables required in the growing liquefied natural gas industry in Trinidad. The study of electrical conduc- tivities will also investigate the implications on the corrosion rates of underground pipes used in the water and other indus- tries in Trinidad. Information on this can be found in the Biosys- tems Engineering Journal Trans ASABE and the WIJE. Latest research efforts have included the engineering design construction and testing of soil erosion two and three-stack soil sieve apparatus biological filter mechanical auger soil pulveriser simple portable potable water treatment plant and water measuring devices. This equipment has been evaluated for local use has been used to test local soils and to quantify the effect of compaction effort organic matter content soil type and rainfall effects on soil transport both by overland flow and raindrops. The latest research publications have been in the Biosystems Engineering Journal WIJE and the Journal of the Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago. Selected Publications Ekwue E.I. and A. Harrilal. Effect of soil type peat slope compaction effort and their interactions on infiltration runoff and raindrop erosion of some Trinidadian soils. Biosystems Engineering Journal 2010 105 112-118. Ekwue E.I. and J. Bartholomew. Electrical conductivity of some soils in Trinidad as affected by density water and peat content. Biosystems Engineering Journal 2011 108 95-103. Ekwue E.I. R. Birch and S. Bethel. Effect of Soiltac on wash erosion by overland flow of some Trinidadian soils. Biosys- tems Engineering Journal 2011 108 87-94. 71 Stephan J.G. Gift is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Head of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineer- ing. He graduated with first class honours in Electrical Engineering in 1976 and a PhD in Electrical Engineering in 1980. He directed the Research and Development Centre at the local Telephone Company for 12 years where he was awarded an international patent for an advanced electronic test system. In 1995 he returned to The University of the West Indies where he has been engaged in intensive research in electrical engineering and its scientific foundations. On the basis of this research he was elevated to Professor in 2005. He has published over 75 papers in international peer-reviewed journals and these have received over 500 citations. Since 2010 he has published seven peer-reviewed papers in electrical engineering specifically in the application of linear integrated circuits in electronic filters instrumentation amplifiers current and voltage amplifiers and multiphase sinusoidal oscillators. In one of these papers in the Interna- tional Journal of Electronics the development of a new composite amplifier circuit that combined important features of two existing integrated circuit elements was featured. This new system increases the options available to the designer as it enables the creation of a whole new range of amplifier systems. The circuit is currently being tested in power amplifier applications. In another paper published in the IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements Professor Gift presented a collection of circuits for the imple- mentation of strain gauges. This was an extension of previous published work in which a new strain gauge amplifier circuit was developed. A third system recently accepted for publication was an improved multiphase sinusoidal oscillator for use in communi- cations power systems and instrumentation. This circuit is simpler than the majority of such systems and utilizes readily available electronic components. Professor Gifts contribution to electrical engineering was again recognized in 2013 when he received the Fenwick DeFour Award Silver for Engineer- ing November 2013 from the National Institute for Higher Education Research Science and Technology. In the last four years he has published 10 papers on the science of engineering with four papers under review. This research has been focused primarily on the use of the Global Positioning System GPS in demonstrating one-way light speed variation. Specifically using two features of this system he has determined that light travels faster west than east on the surface of the rotating earth a finding that challenges the idea of light speed constancy which is the cornerstone of Einsteins Theory of Relativity. These results were published in a series of papers in the journals Physics Essays and Applied Physics Research and are consistent with the theoretical work conducted by the Italian physicist Professor Franco Selleri. During the period under consideration Professor Gift also published papers demonstrating light speed variation using interplanetary tracking technology as well as time transfer technology and he has recently submitted work that extends Selleris development of the physics of space and time. Over the last four years Professor Gift has served as reviewer for over 15 major international engineering journals and is on the editorial board of Active and Passive Electronic Components and ISRN Electronics. He was featured in the University publications The Pelican 60 under 60-UWI Celebrat- ing sixty years 2011 and Decades of Research UWI St Augus- tine at 50 2010. He was inducted into the Trinidad and Tobago Cadet Force Hall of Honour in September 2010. For the past 25 years Professor Gift has been involved in charitable work as a member of the Rotary Club of St Augus- tine West. He has been president of this organization on two separate occasions and was in 2014 conferred with a Paul Harris Fellow from The Rotary Foundation of Rotary Interna- tional for his contribution to Rotary. Selected Publications Maundy B. and S.J.G. Gift. Strain gauge amplifier circuits IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement2013624 693-700. Gift S.J.G. Light transmission and the Sagnac effect on the rotating earth Applied Physics Research 2013 5 5 93-106. Gift S.J.G. and B. Maundy Versatile composite amplifier configuration International Journal of Electronics published online August 2014. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty of Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext.82167 83155 E-mail PROF. STEPHAN J. G. GIFT 72 73 74 Pointe-a-Pierre refinery Andrew Jupiter was conferred the honorary title of Distinguished Fellowby The University of the West Indies in 2013. He is currently attached to the Department of Chemical Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering at The UWI. He is the holder of the Trinidad and Tobago Methanol Company Chair in Petroleum Engineering. He was Permanent Secretary Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries from 1998 to 2004. Prior to this appointment Mr. Jupiter held several senior positions at the Ministry including Senior Petroleum EngineerDirector Operations and Director Energy Planning.He was President of National Energy Corporation of Trinidad and Tobago Limited National Energy from 2009 to 2012. Jupiter commenced his career at Shell Trinidad Limited in 1971 and continued after graduation with the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries. He is currently an Energy Consultant. Jupiter led the Government negotiating team that signed 19 Production Sharing Contracts PSCs between GORTT and multi- national oil companies. Several of these blocks are in commercial production today. He also participated in the successful negotia- tions for LNG trains in Trinidad and Tobago. During this time he held the position of director on several state boards such as Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited National Energy Lake Asphalt Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Marine Company Limited Trinidad and Tobago Oil Company Limited Caribbean Industrial Research Institute Education Facilities Management Company Limited and Alutrint. He also led the team representing the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago GORTT in its initiative to provide guidance to several countries in West and East Africa in the development of their petroleum industries and has also served as an expert witness to GORTT on petroleum matters. He is a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers SPEthe Energy Institute and the Association of International Petroleum Negotiators AIPN and was the first Trinidadian to serve as AIPN Director. He is a Fellow of the Energy Institute Fellow of the Institute of MaterialsMaterials and Mining and is the recipient of i Outstanding SPE Member Award 2004 and 2014 ii Outstanding SPE Regional Services Award 2014 and iii An award from the Point Fortin Borough Council for his contribution to the economic development of Point Fortin and the Energy Sector of Trinidad and Tobago. Mr. Jupiter was one of 50 public servants recognized for their contribution to the country at its 50 years of Independence celebrations 1962-2012. Jupiter as TTMC Chair has been successful in achieving funding for The UWI from the Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs and various oil companies to the sum of TT7.7 M. Further a Memoran- dum of Understanding has been signed with The UWI and Repsol EP TT Limited and Repsol the areas ofi Heavy Oil Research Centre Collaboration ii Heavy Oil Laboratory Equipment Technical Advice and iii Assistance by Repsol to university courses. Professor Jupiter has been successful in obtaining a scholarship from BHP Billiton and establishing the Petroleum Excellence Scholar- ship Programme for MPhilPHD students in the area of Reservoir Characterization of a Trinidad and Tobago oilgas field. Jupiter received a BSc in Natural Sciences and a Post- Graduate Diploma in Petroleum Engineering from the University of the West Indies and also holds a Masters of Engineering Degree in Mineral Engineering Management from The Pennsyl- vania State University. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING FEI FIMMM MHTL Chair Professor of Petroleum Engineering Coordinator Petroleum Studies Unit Department of Chemical Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83076 E-mail PROF. ANDREW JUPITER 75 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Industrial Systems Engineering Department of Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering Tel 868 645 3232 662 2002 ext. 83180 Fax 868 662 4414 E-mail PROF. WINSTON G. LEWIS Teaching Research and General Scholarship One of the major activities I have been involved with since joining the University more than 30 years ago is teaching. My teaching is multidisciplinary in the areas of Manufacturing Ergonomics Quality Management Systems and Facilities Design at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in the Depart- ment of Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering at The Univer- sity of the West IndiesSt.Augustine. I am responsible for prepar- ing all aspects of the courses I teach from the syllabus to hand- outs and examinations supervising projects and research work assessing work and providing feedback monitoring students progress during the semester and counseling students with difficulties and tutoring and mentoring them. AlsoI have super- vised more than 100 final year undergraduate engineering projects and another 58 MSc final projects. I am also involved in the supervision of post-graduate research work at both the MPhil and PhD levels. I have super- vised seven graduate research students five at the MPhil level and two at the PhD level. Four of these students have success- fully completed their research studies including three MPhil candidates and one PhD candidate. I am presently supervising one PhD candidate and two MPhil candidates. The information generated from these research activities has been disseminated to local engineers and related professionals in the industrialmanufacturing sectors through conferences and workshops. To expand on this success efforts are presently being made to establish more research links both within and outside of the region. In recognition of my contributions to the advancement of teaching and learning I was awarded the UWIGuardian Life of the Caribbean Premium Teaching Award in 2004and I was The UWIs nominee for the Association of Atlantic Universities Teaching Award in 2005. Emphasis is also placed on research output where I have an H-index of 12 which is considered excellent for Engineering at the stage that I am at in my career. I believe that research should be both academicpure and applied particularly to the regional needs. Also multi-disciplinary teams of researchers should be working on problems since real world problems usually span many disciplines. In all I have authoredco- authored 87 academic papers 40 of which have been published in peer reviewed academic journals with a further one accepted for publication and another under review. The other 47 papers have been presented at national regional and international conferences. Out of the 40 journal publications 28 have been published in highly reputable international journals while another 12 have been published in national and regional journals including eight in the West Indian Journal of Engineering WIJE. I was a Co-editor of the Proceedings of the 7th Annual Technical Conference ATC of the Association of Professional Engineering of Trinidad Tobago. I have been the Vice Chairman of the WIJE Editorial Sub-Committee since 2010 and I am also a member of the editorial committee of WIJE. My research and development work is in the areas of metal- lurgical industrial engineering sheet metal forming manufac- ture of the steelpan musical instrument applied ergonomics and workplace designengineering quality management systems and nano-technology. This work was highlighted in 60 Under 60 a special 60th Anniversary commemorative edition of UWIs Pelican Magazine and other UWI publications. In October 2008 I was invited by the United Nations to be a policytechnical advisor on the UN Millennium Project in the areas of engineering and innovation and in November 2014 the Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards honoured me with an award for Outstanding Commitment and Service to the writing of National Standards. Administration and Leadership I have served as the Head of the Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering for six years 2003 to 2009. In this capacity I assumed a leadership role in curriculum redesign and development in the department. I was also the Chairman of the Departmental Committee on Teaching and Learning for the implementation of the Universitys Strategic Plan 2007-2012 and the Chairman of the Quality Unit which I established in the department. One of the major tasks of the Teaching and Learning committee was the upgraderedesign of the curriculum of each of the three undergraduate programmes and the four MSc programmes in the department. This is an on-going exercise which requires the involvement of all members of academic staff in the department. To-date the curriculum redesign exercise has been successful resulting in the seven programmes in the department being accredited for the full period of five years by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers U.K. These include the three BSc Honours programmes and the four MSc programmes. I was also involved in the development of a new MSc programme in Engineering Asset Management. This is a very successful programme which has also been accredited. As Head of Depart- ment I was responsible for the preparation of the departments 76 budgets and management of the finances. I have served as the Deputy Dean of Undergraduate Students Affairs and Outreach in the Faculty of Engineering 1999-2000 during which time I contributed in articulating the facultys position on the TutorTutee System and the Grade Point Average System. I was instrumental in convincing departments to increase the weighting of the Final Year Project from approxi- mately 12 of the undergraduate degree to 20 to be in line with international practice. I also represented the non- professorial faculty staff at the Campus Academic Board. I served as Acting Dean on two occasions while Professor Kochhar was Dean and another two occasions while Professor Copeland was Dean. I also served as Deputy Dean of Outreach Enterprise Development 2009-2011 and Deputy Dean of Graduate Studies and Research 2012-2014. While serving as Deputy Dean of Outreach Enterprise Development I was also the manager of the Engineering Institute and the Chairman of the Continuing Engineering Education Centre. In 1996 when the Instructional Development Unit at the University of the West Indies St Augustine Campus was estab- lishedI saw the need to develop as a teacher and I attended all of the new courses offered from 1996-2000. Prior to this I attended a number of professional development courses offered at the Engineering Institute in the Faculty of Engineering. In totalI have attended 25 courses for my personal development as an Engineer and a Teacher. As a result I have always received positive feedback from students on the assessment of my teach- ing and I have always been accessible to them. I have also attended a number of courses on Strategic Leadership Management and I have received training on writing proposals for grant funding from the European Union. I have been involved in activities of the professional engineering fraternity. From 1999-2005I served on the Executive Council of the Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago APETT. I served as President-Elect 2002-2003 President 2003- 2004 and Immediate Past-President 2004-2005. I continue to serve on the membership committee today. In the leadership role of APETT I was responsible for charting the direction and activities of the organization. As an executive member of APETT I was able to build and strengthen links with The UWIindustry and the engineer- ing professionand to create opportunities for learning and training of engineering students through on-the-job training programmes engineering graduates through structured training programmes and professional engineers through continuing professional development programmes. I have served on the organizing committees of six consecutive Annual Technical Conferences ATC 13-18 organized by APETT and the Faculty of Engineering. On the last three occasions I served in the capacity of Co-ChairmanCoordinator. This experi- ence was important for the Industrial Engineering and Manage- ment Conference organized by the Faculty of Engineering 2005- 2006where I once again served as Coordinator of the Conference Organizing Committee. All of these conferences were avenues for continuing professional development of our local and regional engineers since Professional Development Units were given to attendees of these conferences by APETT and the Board of Engineering of Trinidad and Tobago. I am a Fellow of APETT a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME a member of the Association for Iron Steel Technology AIST and a Registered Professional Engineer in Trinidad Tobago. Selected Publications Lewis W.G. and C.V. Narayan Design and sizing of ergonomic handles for hand tools. Journal of Applied Ergonomics 1993 24 5 351-356. LewisW.G.Review of the status of ductile iron castings from direct reduced iron in Trinidad and Tobago. The West Indian Journal of Engineering199821126-34. LewisW.G.A.O.Ameeraliand K.F.PunManufacture of high quality musical steel drums in Trinidad and Tobago. The Asian Journal on Quality200563204 215. 77 78 Ziya Hosein is entranced with Robot used for Brain Computer Interface Research 79 Metallurgical man FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Industrial Engineering Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Campus Coordinator Graduate Studies and Research School for Graduate Studies and Research Tel 868 662 2002 E-mail PROF. KIT FAI PUN January 2009 - October 2014 Since 2009 I have been coordinating the Industrial Engineering IE programme and courses in the Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering MME at the St Augustine Campus of The University of the West Indies. I served as the Deputy Dean of Research and Postgraduate Student Affairs in the Faculty of Engineering from August 2009 to July 2012. In August 2012 I took up the position as the Campus Coordinator at the School for Graduate Studies and Research SGSR and chaired the Campus Committee for Graduate Studies and Research CCGSR and the Campus Research and Publication Funds CRPF Committee. Research Accomplishments My research activities include industrial engineering engineer- ing management integrated systems Quality Safety Knowl- edge Management performance measurement and technol- ogy transfer. Since 2009 I have acquired research funding as Principal Investigator or Co-investigator for five research projects in my research studies and completed another four research funds projects associated with MPhilPhD students. During the period I have written and contributed to writing 24 refereed journal articles 17 technicalconference papers and several teaching aids and publications including reports and invited presentations. In addition I have edited 15 volumesissues for both The West Indian Journal of Engineering and The Journal of The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobagoand conference proceedings for the Second Industrial Engineering and Management Conference that was held in October 2010. By extending my research to outreach activities I visited the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong as a Visiting Professor for seven months in 2009. I also served as a member of various organising committees advisory committees andor technical committees for 15 international conferences in engineering and associated areas since 2009. Besides I have been sitting on a number of journal editorial boards including International Journal of Advanced Operations Management The Asian Journal on Quality and The Learning Organisation - An International Journal and serving as the editor of The West Indian Journal of Engineering and The Journal of The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago. My research work and publications have been cited widely by researchers and scholars.Counting the citation indices since 2009 there were some 1670 citations of my publications and the h- index was 23 and the i10-index was 43 based on the sources of the Google Scholaras at September 302014.I received recogni- tion for my research accomplishments the latest being the Most Outstanding Researcher Award Engineering recognised by the University in October 2012. My biography has been selected for The Marquis Whos Who in the World and The Marquis Whos Who in Science and Engineering. Departmental Supervisions and Research Since 2009 I have supervised 27 undergraduate final-year capstone projects an average of three to five projects per year from laboratory-based and technical projects to application- oriented and industry-university collaboration studies. At the graduate level I successfully supervised 31 Mastersdissertations and two MPhilDoctoral theses. I am also guiding four MPhilPhD and more than ten MSc students in areas of innovation systems quality management organisational learning and technology transfer. Simultaneously I have intensified the publishing capac- ity of students and junior staff and contributed to the resurgence of a research culture. During the period I have had more than 30 joint publications with my students. In fostering the university- industry collaboration towards bringing a synergy of research outputs I served as the coordinator of the Centre for Enterprise Research Integration ERI in the Department till January 2011. I have been leading two research groups in the Department namely the Industrial Engineering Management IEM Group and the Technology Transfer Management TTM Group. Three selected research areas are elaborated below Area 1 Total Quality Management and Performance Measurement Practices Competitive environments and priorities change over time industrial enterprises depend significantly on viable manage- ment practices comprising the total quality management TQM philosophy and effective performance measurement PM that could be linked to the corporate strategy and objectives of organisations. Various emerging approaches for TQM implemen- tation and non-traditional performance measurement have recently been advocated by researchers and practitioners. This research investigates determinants and factors affecting the TQMPM integration and identifies essential ingredients and self-assessment criteria for facilitating TQM and PM practices in 80 organisations. It also provides guidance about what to measure and how to design TQM-oriented performance measures. Area 2 Technology Transfer and New Product Development Enhancement of the innovation capability and improvement of the success rate of firms particularly small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs in technology transfer and new product development NPD have become a critical research agenda in both academy and practice.This research is two-fold.1 It investi- gates the relevance of a collaborative approach to technology transfer and 2 it is geared toward the development of a generic self-assessment model for firms particularly the SMEs to deter- mine their capability and performance in NPD. Area 3 Knowledge Management KM Performance Measures in Organisations KM has been gaining momentum as a means toward organisa- tional survival and growth. A major question for management is how well KM systems support the core business functions and operations in organisations. Thus measures of KM performance validate the effectiveness of KM practices. This research compre- hends the concepts of integrating KM with PM and in short KM performance measures in organisations.It reviews the issues that surround KMPM initiatives and explores the criteria that integrate the principles of business excellence models with KM performance measures. Moreoverthere has been a need for the SGSR via the Office of Graduate Studies and Research OSGR to diagnose and designre-design its core processes and improve its operational efficiency and effectiveness. I have been leading two projects with support from the Campus Research and Publication Fund. They are 1 Development of a BPM Approach for Mapping Process Improvement at the OGSR commenced in September 2013 and 2 A Comparative Study of the Oral Examinations and Associated Procedures of MPhil and Doctorate Theses at The UWI St Augustine Campuscommenced in September 2014.Further- more I have been engaging in two collaborative research projects with overseas scholars and researchers. One was concerned with Strategy Formulation and Performance Measurement in Manufacturing Enterpriseswith City University of Hong Kong and Middlesex University United Kingdom Completed in 2009 and another on-going project is on Writing an Industrial Engineering TextCase Bookwith City University of Hong Kong and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Selected Publications Pun K.F. K.S. Chin and M.Y.R. Yiu. An AHP approach to assess new product development performance an exploratory study Interna- tional Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management 201053210-218. Pun K.F. and M. Nathai-Balkissoon. Integrating knowledge manage- ment into organisational learninga review of concepts and models The Learning Organisation2011183203-223. Pun K.F. and S. Jaggernath-Furlonge. Impacts of company size and culture on quality management practices in manufacturing organi- sationsan empirical studyThe TQM Journal201224183-101. 81 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Food and Agricultural Engineering Pro Vice-Chancellor and Campus Principal Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82183 E-mail PROF. CLEMENT K. SANKAT For nearly four decades Professor Sankat has made a meaningful and significant contribution to the field of engineering in many spheresincluding innovation in food and agricultural mechani- cal engineering leadership in engineering education policy formulation in science and technology public and university service and now leadership of The UWI St. Augustine Campus. Professor Sankat is a Fellow of the Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago APETT a Fellow of the Institute of Agricultural Engineers UK and a Chartered Engineer CEng UK. In 1993 he was promoted to Reader in Agricultural and Food Engineering and in 1998 to Professor. As a scholar with an avid interest in the food and agricultural sector Professor Sankats research work can be broadly divided into three main areas viz. drying and dehydration postharvest technology of fresh horticultural produce and design of agricul- tural machinery. Over three decades Professor Sankat super- vised research projects at the undergraduate and postgraduate levelspublishing more than 150 research papers and graduating 15 MPhilPhD students in agricultural engineering. What distinguishes Professor Sankat as a scholar as seen from his extensive list of publications is that he has worked steadily to translate most of his scholarly work into products that areor can be used by the industry. Some noteworthy works include a bagasse-based feed for ruminants copra processing nutmeg processing solar crop drying and drying of agricultural produce fishherbs and fruitspostharvest technology including pioneering work on the breadfruit jackfruit chataigne mango shadon benigreen herbs nutmegs and pomerac. As Campus Principal and time permitting he continues to promote his research through publications and attendance at international and regional conferences. In 2013 for example he gave the Lewis-Beckford Memorial lecture on Caribbean Agriculture at the Cross Roads The joint conference of the Caribbean Agro- Economic Society and the Caribbean Food Crop SocietyInternational Society for Horticultural Science. This experience in food and agriculture has no doubt influenced his role in the re-creation of a Faculty of Food and Agriculture as St. Augustine two years ago. The last several years have seen a number of book review chapters emerge under Professor Sankats leadership for exam- ple Post-harvest practices for perishable crops in the Caribbean The breadfruit Artocarpus altilis Post-harvest management strategies in an era of climate changeand Solar drying of typical agricultural crops A Caribbean perspective coupled with some 82 new work on knowledge management practices and perform- ance in organizations. Professor Sankat has served at many levels of The UWI Pro Vice-Chancellor Graduate StudiesDeanDeputy DeanHead of Department in the Faculty of Engineering of The UWI and Campus Coordinator Graduate Studies and Research. As Dean of the Faculty of Engineering 2000-2006he was a strong advocate of quality and relevance in engineering education and the benefits of international accreditation and left the Faculty with all their undergraduate programmes accredited. He has published in this area Building Quality in Engineering Programmes and Developing Technology-driven Programmes to Support Indus- try. With regard to science technology and innovation Professor Sankat played a pivotal leadership role in the Vision 2020 Sub- Committee on Science Technology and Innovation championing the establishment of a National Council for Science Technology and Innovation and the development of a national policy. He was Chair of this Sub-Committee. His prior work as the Chair of the Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards and at the Caribbean Industrial Research Institute influenced his directions in this matter. Interestingly also was the establishment of the Research and Development Impact Fund at St. Augustine no doubt influenced by this total experience in managing research and innovation as well as his membership on the Board of National Institute of Higher EducationResearchScience and Technology NIHERST. Professor Sankats distinguished life and achievements are profiled in the NIHERSTs Trinidad and Tobago Icons in Science and Technology Volume 3 as one of the 17 Trinidad and Tobago scientists honoured at its 2012 Awards for Excellence in Science and Technology. Professor Sankat received the Fenrick De Four Award for Engineering. In 2013 he was made a Fellow of the Canadian Society of Biological Engineering and the Interna- tional Society for Horticultural Sciences recognized his commit- ment for excellence in pioneering research in Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Tropical Commodities. What therefore has characterized Professor Sankats contri- bution as a Professor and Principal at The UWI St. Augustine Campus in the last five to ten yearshas been his commitment to enhancing the research profile of The University of the West Indies drawing fully on his ability to translate his years of research into the world of work and shape new directions not the least at The UWI St. Augustine Campus. 83 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of CoastalEnvironmentalWater Resources Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83448 E-mail PROF. GYAN SHRIVASTAVA Gyan Shrivastava is professor of coastalenvironmentalwater resources engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmen- tal Engineering. He is the leader of the Water Group within the Department which comprises the three aforementioned study fields.This groupcomprising six staff membersis active in research on the hydrodynamics of coastline stabilityhydro-geology of crater lakes seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers optimization of rainwater cisterns safe treatment and disposal of liquid and solid wastewastewater re-useand rainfallrunoff modelling. Professor Shrivastava was awarded a gold medal in 2006 by the Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association for his contri- bution towards the optimal utilization and preservation of the regions water resources. He is also the recipient of research fellowships awarded by British Petroleum and the Inter- American Development Bank for carrying out research in tropical hydrology at Imperial College in London. He is a chartered civil engineer and a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers ICE in London and of the American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE. He is a reviewer for journals in hydrological science published by ASCE Elsevier ICE and Springer. Professor Shrivastava has carried out research in the follow- ing three areas over the years Estimation of in-stream flow requirements for the rivers in Trinidads north and north-east coasts This research has determined the limits of abstractions of water for future public use from these rivers from the viewpoint of ecologi- cal sustainability. It is only a matter of time before such abstractions become essential to meet the increasing demands for water in central and north Trinidad. The link between water resources and food security Trinidad and Tobago lives in the illusion of food security which is essentially import-based. This research first investi- gated the amount of virtual water embedded in imported food rice maze fruits and vegetable etc.. Thereafter it examined the availability of water for irrigationand feasibil- ity of building an irrigation infrastructure for ensuring food security. The conclusion is that it is possible to achieve a large measure of food security in Trinidad Tobago if it wants to. The impact of sea level rise on groundwater resources Sea level rise is a distinct possibilityand the islands of the Carib- bean are particularly vulnerable. One area of vulnerability is an increase in the extent of seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers which are an important source of public water supply in many islands. The research carried out shows how a numerical model can be built and applied to carry out real time simulations of seawater intrusion.Such simulations can inform water utilities for determining optimal pumping schedules under different scenarios of rainfall sea level and demand. Current Research Activity Teaching of Civil Engineering Design Ability to design a structure in an optimal manner is the essential skill required of civil engineers. The challenge is how to transform this teaching for the emerging needs of the society and amidst advance- ment in technology.Addressing this challenge has two aspects. First an assessment of what needs to be changed. Shrivastava G.S. ASCE Vision 2025 and the Capstone Design Project Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice American Society of Civil Engineers 139 1 5-11. Second how can the needed change be achieved This second aspect is currently being explored. Evaluation of the safety of dams in Trinidad Tobago Safety of the four dams in Trinidad Tobagothree of which are over 70 years old is a valid concern for public safety due to the likelihood of catastrophic dam failures caused by strong earth- quakes or intense rainstorms. An essential piece of research in this context is numerical simulation of dam-break waves to identify areas that might be affected so that advance warning systems for disaster preparedness can be established. Results from such simulations were included in the two short courses on River Mechanics which were delivered in early 2014 for local practicing engineers. Selected Publications Shrivastava G.S. Eco-hydrology and water resources manage- ment A pilot study in Trinidad Hydrological Sciences Journal 2006 51 6 1163-1176. Shrivastava G. S. Water resources food security A Caribbean case study Journal of Water Maritime Engineering 2003 156 4 351-353. Shrivastava G. S. Impact of sea level rise on seawater intrusion into a coastal aquifer Journal of Hydrologic Engineering199831 74-78. 84 85 86 87 Trinidad North Coast Coastal engineering is a priority area of research FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Production Engineering and Management Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82074 82067 82071 E-mail PROF. CHANAN SINGH SYAN Professor Chanan S. Syan graduated from the University of Bradford UK in 1983 with a BEng Hons in Mechanical Engineering.In 1988 he obtained a doctorate from Hull Univer- sity UK in Artificial Intelligence in Design for Manufacture. He has over 15 years of professional industrial experience and over 25 years as an academic in Higher Education. Presently he is head of Production Engineering and Management Office Postgraduate office Leader of graduate programmes and Professor at The University of the West Indies. His major research interests are in the areas of Engineering Asset Management EAM Brain Computer Interface BCI Manufacturing Excellence ME Innovation Entrepreneurship and wealth Creation IEWC Robotics and Automation RA. His research seeks to explore how technology can be used to improve maintenance and reliability of the local industry improve life of physically challenged people to enable them to be more independent and less dependent or a burden on society and support the local regional industry to move towards becoming internationally competitive and sustain- able. The key focus of his research namely EAM BCI and RA were not established at the University prior to his arrival in October 2006. Therefore his first focus was to raise funds from university and other external sources totalling over TT3.5M to set up research and teaching laboratories in these areas to support teaching and learning as well as establish research activities. He set up the first BCI research group in the region in 2009 launched the EAM research group in 2012 and RA group is in its final stages of becoming fully operational. To support the local industry he has redesigned in consul- tation with stakeholders and further extended the Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering departments postgraduate programme portfolio. A fee paying new and novel Masters programme in Engineering Asset Management has been designed and successfully implemented. This is the first postgraduate offering in this area and supporting the core needs of the energy sector this programme has already made significant contributions to the sector by direct savings of tens of millions of dollars. Currently there are five 5 successful taught masters programmes I the department with annual intake of approximately sixty five 65 students. Professor Syan is the Vice President of International Society for Productivity Enhancement responsible for Conferences. He is of of the founder member of this international organisation who is responsible for the longest 28 years established and respected International Conference on CAD CAM Robotics and factories of the Future. He has successfully lead research projects and successfully supervised numerous PhD MPhil and MSc projects. At UWI he has lead research projects or has been a key team member in procuring projects and funds totalling over TT48M. To date he has authored over 100 academic papers published including book chapters interna- tional refereed journals international conferences and regional local conferences. Some key achievements at UWI include Procurement of fully funded Centre for InnovationEntrepre- neurship and Wealth Creation at UWI supported by Republic Bank Limited. Total project value over five 5 years TT45M. Development of the novel and innovative Mirrored Word Reading Paradigm MWRP which was specifically devel- oped to meet the needs of the low cost BCI controlled Vehicle. A novel low cost trajectory planning and correction approach utilising low-cost sonar and vision sensors for effective navigation of indoor terrain. Establishing a prototype to assess the feasibility to establish demand for retail products demand using P300 speller based on emotive response. Manufacturing Excellence approach for local industry for self-assessment to aid continuous improvement. Assessment of World Class Manufacturing practices and their effectiveness in Trinidad and Tobago using AHP based approach. Major ongoing research activities include Brain Computer Interface for Assistive Technologies and Manufacturing Excellence. Optimisation of offshore assets availability for gas produc- tion using stochastic and risk-based models. Implementation issues in practice of Maintenance Excellence approaches in energy based industries. Selected Publications Chanan S. Syan Managing Diversity for Excellence invited keynote address at 7th Annual Tribology Conference Education 88 Course and Young Engineers Forum March 17-20 2008. Cara Suites Hotel and Conference Centre Trinidad. Chanan S Syan Krystal Ramoutar. Development of an Integrated Framework for Assessing and Improving the Performance of Manufacturing Industries in Developing Coun- tries. Journal of KONBiN 2008 8 1 77-92. Chanan Syan and A S White. Role of European Automotive Supplier Integration in New Product Development Interna- tional Journal of Customer Relationship Marketing and Management 2011 2 3 1-25. Syan C.S. Harnarinesingh R.E.S. and Palaniappan R. Improv- ing classification accuracy using intra-session classifier training and implementation for a BCI based on automated parameter selection Int. J. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications 2012 11 12 3648. Chanan Syan and Krystal Ramoutar 2014 Impact of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement Practices An empirical studyProceedings of the 27th International Confer- ence on CADCAM Robotics and Factories of the Future 2014 CARSFOF 2014 22-24 July 2014 London UK. 89 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Professor of Palaeontology Geology Petroleum Geoscience Unit Chemical Engineering Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83676 E-mail PROF. JEREMY BRENT WILSON I teach within the BSc Petroleum Geoscience course and conduct research in micropaleontology the study of fossil remains so small that they are studied with microscopes. I have published over 50 papers concentrating on the micropalaeontology of the eastern Caribbean Sea and adjacent areas. My work covers three marine microfossil groups Foraminifera forams for short typically calcareous shelled Amoeba-like creatures Radiolaria which differ from the foraminifera in secreting siliceous shellsand Ostracoda microscopicbivalved crustaceans. Micropalaeontologists use fossils for two purposes biostratigraphy which uses fossils to determine the relative geological ages of the various sedimentary rock layers and palaeoecology which examines the ecology of fossil communi- ties and uses the information obtained to ascertain in what environment each bed of rock was deposited. These two sciences did not however develop concurrently. When fossils were first studied in detail during the 19th and early 20th centuries the emphasis was on biostratigraphy. Each species typically existing for only a short time usually just a few million years the finding of an association of fossil species allows palaeontologists to determine a rocks geological age to about 100000 years which in geological terms is a very short time indeed. Quantitative palaeoecology developed over the last few decades. The information from itcoupled with the biostratigraphic ordering of samples allows us to work out how the environment in a region has changed over the many millions of years of geological time. Both types of information are useful in hydrocarbon and mineral exploration. My work has been principally ecological and palae- oecologicalthe latter within a biostratigraphic framework. My work on ecology came from a realization thatif we are to understand the palaeoecology of fossil communities we must first understand the ecology of their living counterparts. I have worked on the ecology of live communities of both forams and ostracods. I have shown that shallow-water forams in the Lesser Antilles live mainly on marine vegetation seagrasses and calcar- eous algae. This is because the sediment theresuch as the white beach sands contains too little organic matter for the forams to eatwhereas the plants support thriving communities of bacteria and microscopic algae. Trinidad however is surrounded mostly by sandy muds washed out from the Orinoco River that support few marine plants. These muds are rich in organic matter and so can support live foram communities. I have also shown that the distributions of ostracod and foram species off southeast Trinidad reflect how the nutrient-rich freshwater outflow from the Orinoco meets the nutrient-poor salty water of the open Atlantic Ocean along a distinct boundary called a front between the two water masses. There is only slow and limited mixing of water across this front and the water masses support distinct foram and ostracod communities. My work has shown that a distinct Orinoco- supported foram fauna can be found across the eastern Caribbean Sea as far north as Puerto Rico and in water as deep as about 2000 m. In addition I have demonstrated that different species live at different depths in the seawater. This means that we can use the species to infer water depth. Armed with knowledge gained from studying these live communities I have been able to decipher parts of Trinidads geological evolution by examining the fossil communities in the sedimentary rocks though much work remains to be done. Because Trinidad straddles the plate tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates but lies in an especially crumpled region at the southeastern corner of the Caribbean plate it has some of the worlds most complex geology. Micro- palaeontology has proven most useful in deciphering the islands geological evolution. The initial biostratigraphic work erected prior to about 1965determined the ages of the islands many rock formations a formation is a collection of beds of similar rock type expansive enough to be differentiated on a geological map. This phase culminated in the development in the 1960s of a system of using species of forams to correlate sedimentary rocks in tropical areas worldwide rocks in different areas are said to have been correlated when fossils have shown them to be the same age. However Trinidad and the Eastern Caribbean region have lagged in developing palaeoecological studies. My research has commenced the filling of this vast gap. Trinidad comprises three distinct areas each with differing geology that have been brought together by plate tectonics the mountains of the Northern Range the flat plane of the Caroni Basin and the rolling hills of the Southern Basin. My research has documented how these elements have interacted over time. The formation of the Northern Range occurred during early to mid Miocene times about 1320 million years ago. The piling up of the rock to form this mountain range weighed down on the crust on either sideproducing an adjacent trough a little like the furrow that forms if you press down on a pillow with your fist. The forams and ostracods show that this pressing down caused the Caroni 90 Basin to subside to about 600 m water depth. This basin then became filled in as the rocks of the Northern Range were eroded and transported into it. Some forams especially Pseudononion and Ammonia live near river mouths and so can be used to determine when and where rivers have impacted an area. My work has shown that these genera are rare in Trinidad until the latest Miocene about six million years ago when they appear abundantly in the Manzanilla Formation. This marks the diversion of the Orinoco River the worlds fourth largest river towards Trinidad. Prior to the latest Miocene the Orinoco flowed northwards into the Caribbean Sea through Lake Maracaibo. The continued develop- ment of mountain ranges along the Caribbean coast of northern South America blocked this passage diverting the river so that it flowed west to east. As demonstrated by the work outlined above we geologists and palaeontologists have wonderful and enormous yarns to tell of the history of the Earth and the life it supports. Science is concerned with the pursuit of truth however and we Earth scientists must ground our stories in reality just as much as any other scientist. I have in recent years become interested in the impact of personal bias on the making of interpretations. The ability to reproduce quantitative results is a hallmark of science but not the only one. In addition any scientist who subsequently re-examines somebodys original research must be able to repro- duce the interpretation of those results. Confidence in scientific research is undermined when an interpretation cannot be confirmed.This will happen when an a priori before investigation assumption was introduced by the original author even inadvert- entlyregarding the nature of the universe or a subset of it.Such an assumption is termed an ontological assumption when it is treated as invariant that is it is not changed as unsupportive evidence is accumulated. It thus conditions the interpretation of any observed scientific phenomena. The results of the scientific investigation are therefore interpreted within the framework of this assumption even though this framework is at variance with actual results obtained. I am currently re-examining early palaeo ecolgical work on Trinidad from the late 1960s and 1970s and showing how the removal of erroneous ontological assumptions can lead to vastly different interpretations of Earth history. Selected Publications Wilson B. Hayek L.C. Ontology confounds reproducibility in ecology and climate science.Life The Excitement of Biology20142 1330. Wilson B. Trouble in Paradise A comparison of 1953 and 2005 benthonic foraminiferal seafloor assemblages at the Ibis Field offshore eastern Trinidad West Indies. Journal of Micropalaeontol- ogy 200625157-164. Wilson B. Effect of hurricanes on guilds of nearshore epiphytal foraminifera Nevis West Indies. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 201040327-343. 91 92 93 Modernizing downtown infrastructure Waterfront Towers Port of Spain 94 The Faculty of Science Technology FST was established in 2013 as part of the demerger of the then Faculty of Science and Agricul- ture. It is the second largest faculty at The UWI St Augustine Campus and offers a diverse range of academic programmes. The faculty comprises five departments with a long history in research and innovation in the life and physical sciences. Staff members are highly qualified with many being world-renowned leaders in their areas of scientific research. For example Prof. John Agard from the Department of Life Sciences DLS was a member of the Inter- Governmental Panel on Climate Change which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. Prof. Dave Chadee also from the DLS and Prof. Patrick Hosein from the Department of Computing and Informa- tion Technology won the ANSA Caribbean Award for Excellence in Science and Technology in 2013 and 2015 for research in insect vector control and mobile and internet technologiesrespectively. All departments are equipped with state-of-the-art laborato- ries providing the infrastructure for conducting high-level pure and applied research which is driven to a large extent by post- graduate students. Special emphasis is placed on conducting research that addresses local and regional problems. Department of Chemistry Research in this department is currently concentrated within three main areas Synthetic and natural products Novel materials Environmental chemistry The University of the West Indies Tel 868 662 2002 E-mail SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Faculty Research Overview 95 A major focus is on the isolation and structural elucidation of natural compounds from terrestrial and marine organisms for applications related to human health and agriculture. More recently attention has also been placed on synthesis of novel molecules. Several researchers are also exploring new materials for use in a number of important applications e.g. in solar energy conversion devices liquid crystal displays biosensors and as catalysts for industrial processes. These efforts have yielded exciting results with several novel compounds showing commer- cial potential. Already one US patent on a product with potential pharmaceutical applications has been secured and an additional one is pending. A recently completed project revealed the potential for producing biodiesel from waste oils and another study showed how the use of small volumes of ozone-depleting substances can impact air-borne concentrations of these agents.Recent research has shown the presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in many sewage treatment plant effluents in Trinidad. Department of Computing and Information Technology The DCIT has been concentrating on mobile and e-learning technologies distributed computing networking artificial intelli- gence neural networks database systems internet technologies object-oriented systemsinformation visualization and program- ming aptitude. The Department has formed partnerships with external stakeholders for research aimed at creating business opportunities and enhancing efficiency and competitiveness in the region.One initiative supported by the Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund RDI Fund is the project Agricultural Knowledge ePortalResearch on Intelligent Decision Support for Enhancing Crop and Livestock Enterprise Management AgriNeT. This collaborative venture with the Ministry of Food Production and the Agricultural Society has already yielded tangible benefits for the sector for example mobile apps developed from this programme are currently being used by farmers to access real time information on commodity pricing. Progress is being made in the development of additional mobile tools for other applications e.g. for field diagnosis of crop diseases and for human disease monitoring surveillance and management. Some of the tools developed were recently used in the establishment of the National Stroke Registry as part of the Faculty of Medical Sciences IDB-funded project Regional Non-Communicable Diseases Surveillance System. Other current research activities that are expected to have major impacts in the region include Radio resource management for next generation cellular networks Performance and capacity analysis of wired and wireless networks Intelligent systems data management and datamining. Developing digital watermarking techniques. Department of Life Sciences This department concentrates research in two main areas Small island biodiversity and environmental management Biotechnology and molecular biology. The programmes of the DLS have been developed in areas related to the environment agriculture and human well-being. The information generated will be important in the formulation of national policies and to help in the development of improved biodiversity management and conservation strategies. For exam- ple UNEP and UWI-RDI funded research in collaboration with several government ministries will provide an economic valuation of a range of ecosystem services of different environments in Trinidad and Tobago. These include assessment of soil and nutrient retention by hillside forestscoastal erosion protection by coral reefs and sea grass beds and carbon sequestration and insect pollination services by wetlands.SimilarlyEU-ACP and IDRC funded programmes would help in understanding the effects of climate change and to improve resilience and build adaptive capacity in promoting sustainable development. The ERC-funded BioTIMEproject is using local streams and their aquatic life forms as natural laboratories to help explain how biodiversity changes over time. The Trinidad and Tobago Green Fund supported project on the Aripo Savannahs is generating ecological data that would help conserve unique plant species in this environmentally-sensitive environment. The EU-ACP funded project on plant disease management will establish systems for continuous monitoring and diagnosis of plant diseases in addition to developing integrated disease management procedures for important vegetable crops.Research supported by Acadian SeaPlants Canada and CFH Foundation USA is exploring the use of seaweed extracts to enhance crop production under local conditions.Work is also proceeding on the development of improved varieties of anthurium and hot pepper. In the area of human health the Bill and Melinda Gates Founda- tion is funding research for the development of a novel lethal ovitrap method for controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Additionallythe UWI-RDI fund is supporting research on develop- ment of rapid diagnostic tools for detecting antibiotic resistance in human bacterial pathogens in Trinidad. Department of Mathematics and Statistics The major areas of research in this department include Mathematical modelling Fluid dynamics Graph theory and combinatorics Biomathematics In addition to research in theoretical mathematics this depart- ment has a number of applied programmes geared towards improving human well-being in the short term. For example mathematical modelling has been applied to help describe the growth of gangs in Trinidad and Tobago specifically by determin- ing the influence of factors such as recruitment activities of gang members interventiondeterrence methods and length of jail sentences on the increase in size and spread of gangs. Potential management strategies have already been identified. Similarly mathematical modelling is being used to help understand blood flow in the human body which can aid in developing improved diagnostic tools for cardiovascular diseases and also help under- stand the effects of assessment and therapeutic procedures on cardiovascular patients. Research on fluid dynamics is also being applied to elucidate physiological processes such as peristaltic transport in the gastrointestinal tract and in pharmaceutical applications such as evaluating drug delivery systems using porous microspheres. Similar applications are being made to characterize flow processes of liquids in industrial processes 96 which would help improve efficiency of operations at industrial plants. Department of Physics This departments research emphasis is on renewable energy material science medical physics electronics and environmental physics. The renewable energy research projects aim to secure the future energy needs of the region at a time of decreasing reserves of oil and gas. Mapping and evaluation of wind resources in Trinidad and Tobago is currently being undertaken to guide policy makers on the feasibility of establishing wind-generating electricity plants in the islands. The Fuel Cell Materials Research Lab is currently developing dye-sensitized solar cells for improved efficiency of harvesting light energy. This lab is also working on developing improved membranes and catalysts for fuel cells and exploring new electrolytes for lithium batteries. Further research is taking place on the design construction and testing of low and high temperature flat plate collectors for use in crop and timber dryers air conditioners refrigerators and solar-powered heat engines water decontamination distillation methods and photo- voltaics. Research on Smart Grid Technology aims to develop a conceptual framework for implementing information and cyber- secure communication technologies and computational intelli- gence in electricity generation transmission distribution and consumption. Research is also taking place in other areas important for regional development e.g characterization of local materials for applications in the ceramics and petroleum industries. Work on medical physics includes studies on neural network functions in the brain blood flow for photoplethysmography magnetocardiogra- phy assessment of the scoliotic spine anthropometrics and ergonomics assessment of human movement fitness testing and radiation biology. Research activities in the area of environmental physics include environmental monitoring of sound and aerosols in the work environment implications of sea surface temperatures for the Caribbean region climate change studiesmodelling air pollution modelling with respect to the regional industries lava flow problems in collaboration with the Department of Mathematics and Seismic Research Unit rain erosivity determination Research involving electronic technology includes projects on digital signal processing and speech recognition systems.Research in the field of astronomy focuses on scale structure of the universe quasars and astrobiology involving the use of mud volcanoes and the pitch lake as analog sites for Mars and Titan. 97 DR. ADESH RAMSUBHAG DEPUT Y DEAN 98 99 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Tropical Island Ecology Head Department of Life Sciences Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83095 E-mail PROF. JOHN AGARD Summary of Research Contribution The research of Professor John Agard is broadly focussed on the area of sustainability science with an emphasis on environmental management methods and decision-support tool development ecosystem services marketing and climate change adaptation. Sustainability science is the study of the complex coupled interac- tions between humans and nature and is driven by concerns about finding the right balance between conserving nature and providing for the needs of society. Its main question is to find a practical model for development which optimizes the tradeoffs required by the long term thinking necessary to assess the functioning of ecological systems as opposed to the short-term timeframes typical in human social systems e.g 5 year election cycles. Through research and application at the University of the West Indies Professor Agard is contributing to mainstreaming environmental sustainability in development planning at interna- tionalregional and local levels. In his personal research Professor Agard is addressing two contrasting questions viz. What affects biodiversity E.g. pollution land clearing climate change and the more important question -What does biodiversity affect or in other words why is biodiversity important E.g. the provision of ecosystem services such as foodwaterwaste degradationerosion protectionnutrient cycling crop pollination and amenity which are important to human well-being e.g.nutritionhealthrecreationsense of place. Current research plans are focussed on developing markets for ecosystem services with an emphasis on non-carbon markets and with the ultimate intention of introducing ecosystem services valuation into national economic and planning frameworks. Two main research projects are currently being pursued along with collaborators. These projects are the Project for Ecosystem Services which is funded by the Global Environment Facility. Global to Local Caribbean Socio-Economic Climate Change Scenarios The National RestorationCarbon SequestrationWildlife and Livelihoods Project The main objectives of the respective projects are The Project for Ecosystem Services ProEcoServ is a UN GEF- funded umbrella project aiming at piloting the bundling of ecosystem services and the integration of ecosystem services approaches into resource management and decision making. The overall goal of the project is to better integrate ecosystem assessment scenario development and economic valuation of ecosystem services into sustainable national development planning. Influence of the TT ProEcoServ project has been demonstrated by inclusion of a section on the project from pages 31-32 of its the Government of Trinidad and Tobago TT key policy document on sustainable development titled Working for Sustainable Development in Trinidad and Tobago. The Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Environ- ment and Water Resources is the Chair of the ProEcoServ National Steering Committee. Ecosystem services are now included in the National Spatial Development Strategy for Trinidad and Tobago which is a requirement of the Planning and Facilitation of Development of Land Act 2014. Field work on the mapping and valuation of ecosystem services has been ongoing in Nariva Swamp Caura Valley and South-West Tobago with an additional site at Caroni Swamp funded by the GORTT-UWI RDI Fund Another aspect of the project is developing exploratory natural capital accounts for carbon water and biodiversity using the UN Statistical Division System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 standard. ProecoServ TT is also developing along with the Green Fund of the Ministry of Planning and Sustainable Development a pilot Payment-for-Ecosystem ServicesEcofinance scheme. The Global to Local Caribbean Socio-Economic Climate Change Scenarios GoLoCarSce project. The overall objective of this research is to help Small Island Developing States in the Caribbean better understand and manage the projected effects of CCto improve resilience and build adaptive capacity as a means of promoting more sustainable forms of develop- ment and sustainable livelihoods. The project will downscale Global Climate Model projec- tions e.g. rainfall and temperature for the Representative Concentration Pathways e.g. RCP4.5 and RCP 8.6 Wm2 used in the 2014 IPCC 5th Assessment to 10km2 in the Caribbean. The projections will then be fed to a set of Tier 2 models to assess projects impacts on water availability vector borne human diseases agriculture forests ecosystems and coastal vulnerability. These results will be fed to a set of economic models to project economic impacts and inform climate change adaptation plans.The expected results of this research are a set of robust socio-economic scenarios for the Caribbean which examine the medium to long-term effects of CC 2035 100 2050 and 2100 under a combination of locally and regionally- relevant socio-economic and political factors. These scenarios will present a range of policy and response options to support and enhance decision-making processes within the Region at the nationalregional and sub-national levels. The project will directly facilitate the development of a pool of expertise within the Region to undertake policy- relevant CC modellingincluding the development of a Centre of Excellence for scenario development and application at the University of the West Indies. It will also support the efforts of IPCC to stimulate the scientific community to propose a richer range of response options to CC at the global level through the generation of the Caribbean socio-economic scenarios The National Restoration Carbon Sequestration Wildlife and Livelihoods Project is funded by the Green Fund of TT and managed by the EMA and its purpose is to restore and conserve the Nariva wetlands through the recognition of the services it provides as bio-diverse ecosystem and carbon sink. This will be accomplished through reforestation of approximately 600 ha of forest providing jobs for surround- ing communities. The restoration of the wetlands will result in additional environmental benefits including carbon sequestration and reduction of Greenhouse Gas GHG emissions provision of expanded habitat for endemic and endangered species in the area and recovery of the protec- tion and storm buffering character of the wetland. UWIs research is measuring and modeling carbon sequestration from the replanting of the natural vegetation. Research is also being carried out developing a novel real-time ground- based remote sensing methodology based on optical Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to monitor green- house gas emissions GHG to assess the potential for marketing documented GHG emissions reductions after restoration of the ecosystem. The UWI is also responsible for the scientific design of the national wildlife survey and analysis of the data.The survey was initiated in 2014 to gather data on wildlife numbers during the period of a national moratorium on hunting. Selected Publications Nurse L. McClean R. Agard J. Briguglio L. Duvat-Magnan V. Pelesikoti N. Webb A. Small islands. Climate Change 2014 Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability. Part B Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2014Cambridge University Press pp.1613-1654. Chadee Dave D. Joan M. Sutherland and John B. Agard Ed. 2014. Flooding and climate change Sectorial impacts and adaptation strategies for the Caribbean Region. 2014 Nova Publishers. 221 pp. Gobin JJ AgardJ MaderaA Mohammed.The Asian green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus 1758 20 years after its introduction in Trinidad and Tobago. Open Journal of Marine Science 2013 3 62-65. 101 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Mathematics Department of Mathematics and Statistics Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83859 E-mail PROF. BAL SWAROOP BHATT My research has been concentrated in the selected areas of Fluid Dynamics and Bio-Mathematicsnamely Flow through porous media Non-Newtonian fluid flows Magnetohydrodynamic flows New methods to find the solutions of partial differential equations Epidemic models Prey and Predator models i Flow through porous media Flow in the porous medium has many applications in Civil Engineering Chemical Mechanical Engineering Petroleum Engineering and Physiological flows. In 1972 I became interested in coupled fluid flows in a porous medium.The coupled fluid flows can be described as simultaneous flow in an open space and in a porous medium. The flow in the open space also known as clean region is given by the Navier- Stokes equations and the flow in the porous medium is governed by the Darcys law or the Brinkman equations with the interfacial conditions as continuity of normal velocity and pressure and slip conditions for the tangential velocity in the case of Darcys law or the continuity of velocity and stresses at the interface in the case of Brinkman equations. I have used both the models in my studies and did some classical problems e.g. flow between two discs with the upper one rotating and the lower one at rest made of a porous material of finite thicknessflow past a heterogeneous porous sphereflow past a porous spherical shell using a matched asymptotic technique. ii Non-Newtonian fluid flows The important application of coupled fluid flows was found during 1982-84 when I studied the movement of a large liquid bubble micropolar fluid surrounded by another liquid Newtonian fluid in a porous tube that resembles the flow of blood surrounded by plasma in an artery. It was discovered that by changing the porous material the velocity of the inner fluid could be increased or decreased. This idea can be used for removing the gall stoneskidney stones once they are in the arteries. The same idea can be used for the move- ment of an ovum transport in an oviduct after fertilisation. iii Magneto Hydrodynamic flows Sometimes in oil well drilling we come across hard rocks which make the drilling impossible. In such situations acids known as mud acids are used to soften the rock. To get insight into such problems the study of stability of the moving acid front in the porous rocks becomes very important since it may damage the structure. John Hinch and I examined the conditions of stability for the movement of an acid in a porous medium. The heat transfer problems in porous media have been carried out by my first PhD student who obtained her degree in 2007. At present we are considering the Brinkman Darcy combina- tion to describe the porous medium as given by Hill and Straughan Generalized Couette flow of two immiscible fluids has been examined by an MSc student in his project. Another student is working towards his PhD in this area. iv New methods to find the solutions of partial differential equations Two new techniques namely hodograph method and the group invariant solutions have been used to find solutions of partial differential equations pde. In the first method we interchange the role of dependent and independent variables in two-dimensional motion and get new solutions of pde In the second we use the Lie group symmetry to generate all possible solutions of pde Bhatt and Krishnan. My second PhD student has studied symmetries of differential equationstopics in nonlocal symmetries of dynamical systems and was awarded his degree in 2010. v Epidemic models vi Prey and Predator models v and vi deal with the system of first order ordinary differential equations where we are mainly interested in the equilibrium values and the stability of the equilibrium values.The existence of equilib- rium values means the disease exists and the instability means the disease becomes epidemic. We try to find the ranges of various parameters e.g. birth rate death rate transmission rate of disease etc. under which the disease can be controlled. In vi the instability means that the prey and predators can not coexist. These ideas can be applied to the study of crime in a country trade between countries war between two countries the management of any institution or company any other system where we come across the interaction of two or more species. We are using disease and prey predator models to study crime in 102 Trinidad and Tobago one of my PhD students is working on this. In the last five years I have continued my research on the applications of namely i flow in porous media and ii bio- mathematics. Flow in porous media One of my PhD students Curtis Boodoo degree awarded in 2013 has done research work on the study of flow in porous media Using the model of Hill A.A. and Straughan B. J. Fluid Mech. 6032008 137-149. with applicationsnamely Motion of a micropolar bubble Peristaltic pumping Micropolar fluid flow past a porous shell Flow relative to an assembly of spherical porous shells. The first model is to understand the flow of blood within capillaries. The second model helps us to know about peristaltic transport in the gastrointestinal tract. The last two models present theoretical study into drug delivery using porous micro spheres. My other PhD studentDayle Chandan Jogieis working on Heat and Mass transfer in porous media. Bio- Mathematics One of my PhD students Joanna Sooknanan degree awarded in 2013 has done research work on mathematical models of crime namely Gang membership treated as an epidemic Gang membership treated as an epidemic using an infectious disease model with demographics Corruption- An insidious disease in the police service. An eco- epidemiological model Criminals as predators to be harvested A predator-prey model with group defenseprey migration and switching. The study helps us to understand the dynamics of crimes in a country and possible solutions to control them. My other PhD student Letetia Addison is working on under- standing the dynamics of the stock market using the disease and prey-predator models. Vishala Sookram a PhD student is going to join me from next semester to use these bio-mathematical models to get insight into the progress of certain diseasesboth infectious and chronic. I am also working on biological ideas to understand human behaviour which can then be applied to understand the growth of a religion relationship problems in humans politics of a country etc. with my colleagues Drs. R. P. Jaju from Swaziland and D.R. Owen from Trinidad. Selected Publications Curtis Boodoo Balswaroop Bhatt and Donna Comissiong Two- phase fluid in a porous tubeA model for blood flow in a capillaries. Rheol.Acta201352579-588. R.P. Jaju D.R. Owen and B.S Bhatt Predator harvesting with one predator and two prey habitats. Studies in Mathematical Sciences 20136228-39. Joanna SooknananBalswaroop Bhatt FIMA and Donna M.G.Comis- siongAnother way of thinkingA review of Mathematical models of crime.Mathematics Today2013131-133. 103 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Environmental Health Department of Life Sciences Telext 868 662 2002 ext. 83740 E-mail PROF. DAVE D. CHADEE 104 Professor Dave Chadees contribution to public health research spans three decades. His research has had a significant impact on the control and management of vector borne diseases locally regionally and internationallyby merging two recognized medical disciplines epidemiology and medical entomologyparasitology to establish a hybrid area of specialization entomological epidemi- ology- a truly multi-disciplinary approach. This unique approach has expanded the range and depth of his research thereby allowing him to examine poorly studied areas of vector biology and to explore new frontiers in both the laboratory and the field. In recent years a third discipline has been added to his research specializationthe science of climate change. Professor Chadees work in the area of teaching and mentoring of postgraduate students is well recognized with the introduction of the Bioethics course the introduction of the Master of Public Health Programme in the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the University of AlabamaBirmingham and the introduction of the annual Research Day in the Department of Life Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology where he serves as the Research Day Programme Coordinator. His work has been widely recognized and he has been the recipient of numerous prestigious awards including the Wellcome Scholarship Gorgas Memorial Prize The Vice Chancellors Award for Research Excellence 2010 The Emmanuel C. Amoroso Gold Medal for Medical Sciences NIHERST 2013 and the Anthony Sabga Caribbean Award for Excellence in Science and Technology in 2013. Within the disciplines mentioned above his research covers a wide range of subjects and he has published over 250 peer- reviewed articles in international journals. He is the co-author of two books and he holds the record of having published in three of the four most prestigious or high impact journals in his field Science The Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine - as well as other high impact journals. The impact of Prof Chadees research has changed the way vector control is conducted throughout the worldin particular by the introduction of new surveillance methods which have reduced manpower needs and the quantity of insecticides applied to the environment. This work has attracted the attention of numerous international organizations and he now serves as an expertadvisor to the World Health Organization the Pan Ameri- can Health Organization the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA and as a lead author on the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change. Professor Chadees experience in the control of dengue and chikungunya led to his work with the International Atomic Energy Agency in five Indian Ocean islands - Mauritius Reunion SeychellesMadagascarSri Lanka and Comoros from 2011 to 2014. This work involved training and implementation of laboratory studies preliminary to the eventual release of sterile insects SIT as a viable vector control method for dengue and chikungunya control. This project has now received funding for another two years and a new project has started in South East Asia and includes China Pakistan Sri Lanka Malaysia Thailand Indonesia Singapore and the Philippines. Previous work on SIT was recently published as a Supplement in the journal Acta Tropicaand he has served as a Co-editor and co-author of four scientific papers based on work conducted at The UWI St Augustine 2014. He also served as a lead author of the Health Wellbeing and Co-benefits chapter as a lead author for the Cross-Chapter Box on Livelihoods and Poverty as a lead author of the Technical Summary - Climate Change 2014 - ImpactsAdaptation and Vulnerability and as a contributing author on the Small Islands Chapter. All four contributions formed part of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Professor Chadees public service contribution involves his work on the LawGovernance and Ethics Committee and Scientific Advisory Committee of the South West Regional Health Authority Ministry of Health Trinidad. He is chairman of the Ethics Commit- teea role he has performed for the last three years.In additionhe was appointed a member of the Trinidad and Tobago Selection Panel for the Anthony N Sabga Caribbean Awards for Excellence in September 2013. Professor Chadees research has merged the science of climate change epidemiology and entomology and led to the develop- ment of the pre-seasonal Aedes aegypti treatment strategy. That is the treatment of mosquito breeding sites which contain eggs resistant to desiccation but which will hatch when the rains accumulate in containers. Therefore by treating these containers before the onset of the rainsthe newly hatched immatures will be killed thus reducing the mosquito population and preventing dengue transmission during the early part of the rainy season. Studies on the effects of different temperature regimens on the development of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes suggested that as the climate gets hotter the life cycle of these mosquitoes will be reduced and the intrinsic incubation period may also be shortened thus making Aedes aegypti more vector competent. In addition studies on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti not only identified circadian rhythms but also the factors 105 which affect the oviposition behaviour of mosquitoes. These studies formed the basis i upon which research proposals to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation were made and wonand ii for the development of the Sticky Ovitraps which can be used to collect infected adult mosquitoes and reduce vector densities. To determine whether these mosquito behaviours were genetically modulateda series of molecular genetic studies were conducted in the field in Trinidad and these have proven to be significant with respect to vector management and control. Professor Chadees laboratory studies had shown that a mosquito did not lay all her eggs in one container but rather distributed them in two or more containers a feature he described as skip oviposition. Similar results were observed using molecular markers among ovipositing field populations in Trinidad.Natural skip ovipositionof the mosquito Aedes aegypti as evidenced by codominant genetic markers and in another study with these collaborators they demonstrated that highways create or serve as barriers to flying mosquitoes. The results showed distinctly different genetic markers in mosquitoes on the eastern and western sides of the Uriah Butler Highway. These unique behaviours were not known in the field because the tools were not available but with molecular markers becoming available these studies became possible. His current research plan is to continue serving on several UWI committees expand the sterile insect technique SIT work using funding from the IAEA by doing field trials in large cages and ultimately conducting field trials in Trinidad and Tobagocomplete the work currently being conducted on the Darwin finches on the Galapagos Islands develop new techniques and vector control strategies for dengue and chikungunya and to develop dengue transmission models. Selected Publications Chadee D.D. P. Kittayapong A.C. Morrison and W.J. Tabachnick. Genetics. A break through for global public health. Science 2007 3161703-1704. Woodward A. K.R. Smith D. Campbell-Lendrum D.D. Chadee Y. Honda Q. Liu J. Olwach B. Revich R. Sauerborn Z. Chafe U. Confalonieri AND A. Haines. Climate change and health on the latest IPCC reportThe Lancet 2014httpdx.doi.org10.1016S0140-67361460576-6. Chadee D.D. Resting behaviour of Aedes aegypti in Trinidad with evidence for the re-introduction of indoor residual spraying IRS for dengue control. Parasites Vectors20136255 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor in Zoology Department of Life Sciences Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82206 E-mail PROF. ADRIAN HAILEY My research interests are the population ecology and physi- ological ecology of animals particularly tortoises snakes and lizards. Before coming to the Caribbean most of my field work had been done in the Mediterranean Greece France and Spain and Southern Africa Zimbabwe. At The University of the West Indies my focus has been on threatened and problem fauna with supervision of several research projects by postgraduates at the request of the Environmental Management Authority EMA and the Department of Natural Resources and the Environment DNRE Tobago. My aim is not only to generate useful information but to professionalise the study of biodiver- sity in Trinidad and Tobago and increase the employment opportunities for our graduates and postgraduates.The subjects of these projects include the pawi and the white-tailed sabrew- ing hummingbird funded by scholarships from the EMA the green and hawksbill sea turtles funded by the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Research Development Fund and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation USA the orange-winged parrot funded by the DNRE and the golden treefrog on El Tucuche.Other postgraduates have studied spider biodiversity and amphibian ecotoxicology.Descriptions of these projects are available through the web page httpsta.uwi.edufstlifesciencesahailey.asp. Kerrie Naranjit MPhil 2012 studied the pawi at Grande Riviere and Morne Bleuparticularly its phenology the pattern of annual ecology and behaviour as the basis for a management plan for this Environmentally Sensitive Species for the EMA. This work was done in collaboration with the Pawi Study Group see httppawistudygroup.yolasite.coma local non-governmental organisation of which we were both founder members. Daveka Boodram MPhil 2012 studied another Environmentally Sensitive Species the white-tailed sabrewing hummingbird in the Main Ridge Forest Reserve Tobago. This work on the distribution habitat use and population ecology of the hummingbird involved capture and banding of the birds and also resulted in a management plan for the EMA. Michelle Cazabon-Mannette recently upgraded to PhD is studying the hawksbill and green turtle populations on the reefs of Tobago in relation to economic use in the fishery now ceased and in dive ecotourism. All five species of sea turtles in Trinidad and Tobago are now fully protected as Environmentally Sensitive Species. Angela Ramsey MPhil of the Department of Natural Resources and the EnvironmentTobago House of Assemblyis studying the ecology of the orange-winged parrot to try to reduce damage by this pest species to agricultural crops. Nicole Sookoo MPhil 2012 studied the effects of six commonly-used pesticides on two amphibian species the wet-season breeding Tungara frog and the dry-season breeding cane toad. These data form a valuable baseline for toxicology of pesticides to tropical amphibians which have been neglected in previous studies. Jo-Anne Sewlal PhD2012 studied the influence of habitat type and disturbance on the biodiversity of the orb-weaving spider guild in Trinidad. This work see was instrumental in several awards to Dr Sewlal including the Caribbean Academy of Sciences Third World Academy of Sciences Young Scientist Award 2010 received from the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda the Honourable Baldwin Spencer in St. Johns Antigua. I was managing editor of the journal Applied Herpetology herpetology being the study of reptiles and amphibians published by Brill The Netherlands from 2003 until the journal ceased publication in 2009. A series of special issues of the journal on the Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas were later republished with additional contributions in book form co-edited with the herpetologists from Cave Hill Professor Julia Horrocks and Mona Professor Byron Wilson. The full series describes the conservation situation of the reptiles and amphib- ians of most of the islands of the wider Caribbean from Bermuda to Trinidad and Tobago and from The Bahamas to Barbados and is available in the West Indiana Collection of the Alma Jordan Library. Research on the local herpetofauna partly stimulated by this project included discovery of the fatal disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in both Trinidad Alemu et al. 2013 and Tobago Alemu et al. 2008 and a study of the small snake Atractus trilineatus which is abundant on the St. Augustine campus. A full list of publications many available as pdf copies is available at httpsta.uwi.edufstlifesciencesahailey.asp. In recent years I have been involved in several single-species accounts for the international organisations the IUCN both the Species Survival Commission and the Red List and CABI the Invasive Species Compendium which are freely available online Greek tortoise 2011 - httpwww.iucn-tftsg.orgtestudo- hermanni-059 Tobago stream frog 2013 - search Mannophryne olmonae Barbados anole and Wattsanole 2013 - httpwww.cabi.orgisc search Anolis extremus and Anolis wattsi 106 Bronze anole and St Vincent bush anole 2014 - httpwww.cabi.orgisc search Anolis aeneus and Anolis trinitatis I have developed these ideas into a student exercise for senior undergraduate classes in animal behaviour and ecology prepar- ing similar materials on local wildlife for the general public. This series reached a total of 1600 pages and 300 species in 2015 see The Online Guide to the Animals of Trinidad and Tobago at httpsta.uwi.edufstlifesciencesogatt.asp. Recently I have completed a sabbatical year 20132014 when I was able to return to Greece to continue study of a tortoise population in which a total of 6670 animals have now been individually marked. Several tortoises from the first year of the study 1980 were recaptured among about 1200 recaptures and nearly 700 new individuals marked. Analysis of these data will give much information on their survival growth and move- ments for both fundamental ecology and practical conservation. Local research during the year focussed on the goby Sicydium punctatum with Dr Dawn Phillip and Mr Raj Mahabir also of the Department of Life Sciences.This small fish sometimes known as tri-tri in the Caribbean supports a fishery on some other islands in the region but is now rarely exploited in Trinidad and Tobago. The work examines the recruitment and habitat use of juvenile and adult fish after they migrate as larvae back from the sea into the rivers of the Northern Range. Selected Publications Alemu J.B.I. M.N.E. Cazabon-Mannette A.A. Cunningham L. Dempewolf A. Hailey R.P. Mannette K.T. Naranjit M.W. Perkins and A.C.J. Schmidt-Roach A. C. J. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a vulnerable frog in Trinidad West Indies. Endangered Species Research 2013 20 131-136. Schuhmann P.W. Cazabon-Mannette M. Gill D. Casey J.F. HaileyA.Willingness to pay to avoid high encounter levels at dive sites in the Caribbean. Tourism in Marine Environments 2013 9 81-94. Hailey A. B.S. Wilson and J.A. Horrocks Editors. Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Volume 1. Conservation Biology and the Wider Caribbean. pp vi 227.Volume 2.Regional Accounts of the West Indies. pp viii 439. 2011. Leiden The Netherlands Brill. 107 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Computer Science Department of Computing and Information Technology Tel 868 483 4454 E-mail PROF. PATRICK HOSEIN Patrick Hosein attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy where he obtained a BSc in Mathematics a BSc in Electrical Engineering a MSc in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science an Electrical Engineers degree which is an advanced industry-oriented degree and a PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. During his studies he performed research in a wide variety of areas including the modeling and simulation of speechnetwork flow optimization and non-linear resource allocation. He also spent one summer at Bose Corpo- ration where he performed research under the supervision of Professor Amar Bose. Patrick has worked at several world-renowned research laboratories and collaborated with several international experts. His research has led to 38 granted and 42 pending patents as well as over peer-reviewed papers that are mainly in IEEE publications. He has won various awards but he is particularly proud of the following a Trinidad and Tobago Government Scholarship. He was nominated for the Ericsson Inventor of the year award in 2004 he was the winner of the Huawei US Wireless Research employee of the year award in 2007 and he was awarded a NIHERST Science and Technology medal in 2012. He is also a Senior Member of the IEEE and a member of the honor societies Tau Beta PiSigma Xi and Eta Kappa Nu. Patricks first job after graduation was at the famous Bell Laboratories where his focus was on scheduling and optimization algorithms. This was followed by work in congestion control and performance analysis for telecommunication networks which led to his first granted patent. In the early nineties he returned to Trinidad and was a Lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineer- ing at the St.Augustine Campus of The UWI.During this period he continued his research but also focused on teaching and consult- ing.He proposed and developed a new MSc degree in Communi- cation Systems for the Department. That degree together with most of the courses that were designed for itis still offered by the department today. Having used the Internet while at MIT and Bell Labs he was determined to obtain Internet access for The UWI and provided the very first Internet connection for the University. On evenings when the department FAX machine line was no longer needed he formed a dial-up connection to a University in Puerto Rico which already had Internet access. He then used this access to interconnect the UWI-wide area network.This allowedfor the first time a few students in the Computer Science Centre to browse the Web.He also set up early email services using addresses of the form Because of his early work in this area he was assigned to manage the .tt domaina function he still performs. When the local telephone company decided to become an Internet Service Provider ISPPatrick together with Ronald Lessey and Jason Arneaud Computer Science StudentsKevin Blackman an Electrical Engineering student and Dr. Feisal Mohammed a Mechanical Engineering Lecturer formed a team and together with Simon Fraser at IBM which provided the hardware was awarded the contract to develop the registration management and billing software for the ISP.This was especially rewarding since the competitors for the project were all foreign based. In the mid-nineties Patrick decided to return to Bell Laborato- ries where he resumed research on telecommunication networks before moving over to ATT Laboratories where he worked on many of the then new Internet services that were being offered. During this period he also continued to work on performance improvements for network switches and transmission lines and was granted patents in these areas. With the emergence of cellular communications Patrick decided to move into that area and so took up a research position with Ericsson at their San Diego office. This was a relatively new area for him but he quickly ramped up to the level where he was again able to produce several novel ideas for second and third generation cellular networks. His work was mainly in the area of optimizing the use of the various resources required for providing such services. When Ericsson decided to close their office in San Diego Patrick turned down relocation options and decided instead to work for a Chinese wireless vendor called Huawei.Here he worked on fourth generation networks better known as LTE.He was also involved in the standardization of the fifth generation cellular standard. With his kids off on their own Patrick decided that it was time to head back to Trinidad and Tobago and contribute to the development of Information and Communication Technologies ICT. This time he chose to join the Department of Computing and Information Technology. Because of his industry background the department head asked him to develop a new Computer Science MS. degree. He chose and developed the courses that would be relevant for todays MSc students. He has also been working with students and other faculty on various projects.In the AgriNeTT projectlead by Dr.Bernardhe created three repositories for the storage of open dataone for static dataone for spatial data and one for real-time data. He has also been working with colleagues in the Department of Electrical and Computer 108 Engineering and the Physics Department on a Smart Grid project. He has also been collaborating with colleagues in other countries most notably with a former MSc student who is working on her PhD in Korea. One of his main objectives is to reach out to indus- try in order to be able to collaborate with them and have his students work on practical problems in industry. One such collaboration is with the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commis- sion. Professor Hosein has distinguished himself as a true innovator mainly through the many patents granted in various disciplines Telecommunications Wireless Communications and Mathemat- ics and in various research stages within these industries Products Standards and Advanced Research. Each of these patents has the potential to generate tens of millions of dollars in revenue.Here are brief descriptions of some of these patents. System and Method for Synchronized and Coordinated Beam Switching and Scheduling in a Wireless Communications System This work was performed during the standardization of the 4G cellular standard and proposed as a future enhance- ment. This together with some related alternatives is now being considered for incorporation into the 5G standard and hence will lead to significant royalties for my previous employerHuawei. System and Method for Utility-Based Scheduling for Space Division Multiple Access SDMA on an Uplink of a Wireless Communications Network In 5G cellular networks multiple users will be served over resources traditionally used for a single user. The work in this patent was carried out to determine how such simultaneous users should be chosen and served. System and Method for Scheduling Variable Bit Rate VBR Streams in a Wireless Communications System In addition to traditional cellular service modern cellular networks can use broadcast mechanisms for distribution of content such as live sports feeds.One difficult problem is how should these feeds be multiplexed. The algorithm proposed in this patent increases packing efficiency and saves on device energy usage. This patent also has the potential for significant royalties. System and method for wireless network congestion control Congestion control in new cellular networks is difficult because of the wide variation in the resources required for data connections as opposed to voice connections. In this patent a truly novel approach is proposed and this work has since led to research on pricing for Quality of Service QoS offerings. System for supporting consecutive and distributed subcarrier channels in OFDMA networks This is some groundbreaking work in optimization that received a best paper award at the 2006 IEEE WPMC conference. System and method for wireless network admission control based on quality of service This again is early work i.e.before cellular networks had the infrastructure to deploy such techniques that was encouraged by his employer.It contains a novel approach for admission control that takes into account QoS constraints. Dynamic control of multiple heterogeneous traffic sources using a closed-loop feedback algorithm This is an example of work done while working in the telecommunications field at ATT Labs.It is a new technique for traffic control. Method and apparatus for synchronizing the provision of data among geographically distributed databases In the early nineties when Local Network Portability standardization was being developed this work addressed an extremely important problem that of synchronization of the associated databases. Local Number Portability is soon to be introduced in Trinidad and Tobago. Selected Publications P. Hosein On the optimal allocation of downlink resources in OFDM-based wireless networks Lecture Notes in Computer Science20063970202-213. P. Hosein An improved automatic congestion control algorithm for telecommunications signaling networks Telecommunications Systems2001163-4379-398. D. P. Bertsekas P. Hosein and P. Tseng Relaxation methods for network flow problems with convex arc costs SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization1987251219-1243. 109 110 111 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Biotechnology and Plant Microbiology Department of Life Sciences Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83092 Office ext. 82238 Plant-Microbe Lab Fax 1868 663-5241 E-mail Website httpsta.uwi.edufstlifesciencesjjayaraman.asp PROF. JAYARAJ JAYARAMAN I have more than 22 years of extensive teaching and research experience at reputable universities in India USA and Canada. I have taught various courses in Microbiology Plant Pathology Molecular Biology and Biotechnology at undergraduate graduate and diploma levels. I have accomplished more than 20 externally funded research projects guided more than 20 graduate student research projects and published more than 90 refereed research publications on the above research areas.Through research I have developed several low-cost technologies for environment-friendly crop protection and culture methods and crop genetic improve- ment. Throughout my career I have been actively involved in the promotion of science at the community level. My researches hitherto have had straight relevance to the cause of human and environmental well-being and sustainability. Summary of Research Projects at The UWI P1 Use of seaweed products for the management of diseases and growth promotion of crops in Trinidad Funding Acadian SeaPlantsDartmouthNSCanada Extracts of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum have been used as a biostimulant to promote growth and productivity in a number of agricultural production systems.The field efficacy of commercial extracts of Ascophyllum has not been studied under Trinidad conditions. The parameters under investigation include growth effects yields quality of produce and disease suppression. Parallel greenhouse and growth chamber experiments are conducted to study the mechanism of growth promotion and induced disease resistance.Study results to date demonstrated the positive effect of seaweed extracts in tomato on plant growth yield and disease suppression. The molecular mechanisms under- lying the above effects were established. The postgraduate student is nearing completion of studies on tomato and submit- ting a thesis by September 2014. P2 Identification of phyto-elicitor compounds and novel chemical molecules from the seaweeds and seagrasses of Trinidad PI Funding Conservation Food and Health Foundation Boston MA USA The common seaweed and seagrass species found around Trinidad and Tobago were studied for antimicrobial elicitor and plant growth regulatory properties.At least six of the seaweed and two of the seagrass species were found to possess the above properties.Some of them at least two seaweeds and one seagrass were found to be far more active than any other species reported so far. These particular three species are being intensively studied for characterization of active molecules.The molecular mechanisms of action in plants and microbes are being verified through Q-PCR Arabidopsis mutantstranscript profiling and deep sequencing.The active compounds of two seaweeds have been characterized and their molecular structures were found to be certain fatty acids.Two research graduate students are working on this project. P3 Development of seaweed products from local seaweed species for environment-friendly crop protection PI Funding UNDP Local seaweed species are being tested for phyto-elicitor and plant growth regulatory activities. The molecular mechanisms are investigated using established plant models. Upon completion of investigation artificial formulations of seaweed extracts and other ingredients including chelated micronutrientsplant growth condi- tioners etc.will be attempted. P4 Developing sustainable disease management strategies to improve vegetable production towards self-sufficiency and food security in the Caribbean region PI Funding ACP Caribbean Pacific Research Program for Sustainable Development. The research activities outlined under this project aim to develop and evaluate classical pathogen management practices and integrated disease management IDM strategies at field level and propagate such successful practices for extensive and large scale adoption.The broad objectives of this project areto study the pattern and intensity of occurrence of plant diseases of important vegetable crops tomato bodi and pumpkin of the Caribbean and develop diagnostic tools to evolve IDM practices and sustainable plant health strategies for important vegetable cropsto propagate and promote new technologies developed for adoption at the field level and training of growers and agricultural personnel towards successful implementation. Four graduate research students and one post-doctoral scientist are working on this project. P5 Etiology of sudden decline and dieback of Columbian Red Cedar trees in Trinidad Co-PI with Dr.Adesh Ramsubhag Funding Ministry of Environment and Forestry FAO The etiology of the Columbian red cedar tree decline has been studied in detail.Several fungal species were isolated from infected 112 plants and characterized. It has been established that many of the putative pathogens are not primarily involved in the causation of the disease but only in secondary infection. Our research findings proved that this particular disease is more a disorder caused by environmental stress but later progresses into a disease phase due to secondary infection by a few pathogens. P6 Surveillance and characterization of antibiotic resistance in common bacterial pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago PI Funding RDI Fund Antibiotic resistant infections are one of the chief causes of extended medical treatments and hospitalisation resulting in a large economic burden among the communities. Earlier detection would save lives particularly of young children and serve as the basis for management of this malady. Absence of efforts to under- stand the prevailing resistant strains and lack of rapid procedures for characterization and detection contribute to compromising the safety of the population. Therefore the present study has been formulated to initiate a thorough investigation of antibiotic resistant strains of the two most common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia occurring in TT. The elucidation of genomic data will enable us to develop rapid and high-throughput molecular-based PCR dependent diagnostic techniques which are capable of delivering diagnostic results within 6-12 hours as opposed to the minimum 5-6 days required by the conventional biochemical and microbiological detection techniques. Selected Publications Punja Z.K. A. Wan L. Leippi R.S. Goswami and J.Jayaraj. Growth pathogenicityinfection behaviorand genetic diversity of Rhexocer- cosporidium isolates originating from ginseng roots in British Columbia.Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology201335503-513. Ramkissoon A. A. Ramsubhag A. Maxwell and J.Jayaraj. In vitro antimicrobial activity of common species of seaweeds native to Trinidadian coasts.Algological Studies2014In Press. JayarajJ.and N.Ali.Use of seaweed products for growth promotion and disease management of crops.InUse of alternative products for sustainable plant disease management eds S. Sangeetha V.Kurucheve and J.Jayaraj.2014CABI Publications.In Press 113 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Organic Chemistry Head Department of Chemistry Tel 868 662 6013 or 662-2002 ext. 83570 E-mail PROF. ANDERSON MAXWELL 114 From the earliest times humans have utilized preparations from plants animals and microorganisms for medicinal and other purposes. Modern medicine has benefitted from the extensive traditional medicinal knowledge of many cultures as many currently used drugs and others no longer widely used have been derived directly or indirectly from scientific investigation of the chemical entities responsible for the efficacy of traditional medicinal preparations. Some well-known examples include quinine malaria aspirin pain reserpine hypertension podo- phyllotoxin vinblastine vincristine and taxol various forms of cancer pilocarpine glaucoma and galantamine Alzheimers. The underlying thesis of my research has been that our local flora and fauna constitute a potentially rich resource of medicinal and other products which needs to be explored and the knowl- edge unearthed to be utilized for the social and economic benefit of our people and the development of our society. My research has therefore been focussed on the chemical investigation of unexplored species of our flora and fauna to determine the secondary metabolites produced and thus provide the basis for their utilization and conversion into products that will add value to the social and economic well- being of our country. We have collaborated with colleagues at The UWI Faculty of Medicine Department of Life Sciences and abroad University of Toronto National Institutes of Health University of Mississippi to investigate the biological activity particularly anticancer and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated. Our work over the years has involved systematic investiga- tion of locally available species mainly from the plant families Piperaceae black pepper family Solanaceae tomato family Rubiaceae ixora family and Euphorbiaceae milkweed family but also selected species from other plant families which caught our interest. We have also worked on microorganisms from unique environments in collaboration with colleagues from the Department of Life Sciences at The UWI St. Augustine. This has led to some interesting findings and proved the importance of pursuing such research of our own biodiversity. The new knowl- edge on the chemistry of the species we have studied has served to indicate the vast hidden treasure of natural compounds which remains to be discovered by continuing investigation of the chemistry of the plants and microorganisms in our local environment. Further studies directed specifically to exploiting the biological activity and other properties of these compounds will bring dividends through the development of products for use in medicine in agriculture in food and in personal care preparations. In addition to the new compounds we have isolated from the plants and microorganisms that we have studied and which have added to the pool of available knowledge on the chemistry of the various families we have also been able to investigate the biological activity of many of these compounds with the aid of colleagues both locally and abroad and to identify some compounds which are candidates for further development into drugs. Our studies on the Piperaceae led to the isolation from Piper tuberculatum a plant traditionally used by diabetics to control their blood sugar of a compound piplarine which has been shown to have hypoglycemic activity.This supported the folkoric use of the plant. Piper aequale gave a compound which showed promising activity against the tuberculosis bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and structure-activity studies are now needed to tailor the activity and selectivity of the compound to determine if it is possible to develop from it a new antitubercular agent. Investigation of the local Solanaceae species genus Solanum showed their potential as sources of steroids which can be used as raw materials for the synthesis of higher value steroi- dal pharmaceuticals. One of the compounds screened in a National Institutes of Health-sponsored programme also showed promising activity against the tuberculosis bacterium. We have also being working on the Pyschotria genus of the Rubiaceae family as representatives of the family and genus are known to produce alkaloids with antimalarial and other types of biological activity. Our efforts so far have yielded some new and interesting compounds and work is continuing Our studies on the Croton gossipifolius species of the Euphor- biaceae family have so far given novel compounds including a cyclic peptide which has shown anticancer activity. Further work to isolate other compounds present is continuing. Given the alarming shortage of effective antibiotics to treat life threatening infections we have looked to bacteria and fungi isolated from unusual environments for example the Caroni Swamp and the Pitch Lake as sources of new antibiotic compounds. Work on a number of bacterial and fungal strains has been ongoing. One strain in particular has yielded compounds which have shown very potent antibiotic action. Further work to identify and study the full scope of the activity of the compounds isolated is continuing. 115 Selected Publications Quintyne-Walcott S. A. Maxwell and W.F. Reynolds Crotogossa- mide a cyclic nonapeptide from the latex of Croton gossipifolius Journal of Natural Products20077081374-1376. Dabideen D. A. Maxwell W. F. Reynolds and S. McLean.Neolignans from Piper aequale.Phytochemistry1999503499-504. NarineL.L.and A.R.Maxwell.Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Palicourea croceaPhytochemistry Letters2009234-36 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Fisheries and Aquaculture Dean Faculty of Science and Technology Tel 662-2002 ext. 84484 E-mail Website httpsta.uwi.edufstlifesciencesiramnarine.asp PROF. INDAR RAMNARINE 116 Indar Ramnarine graduated at the top of his class in 1980 with a BSc Hons degree in Agriculture from The UWI.He pursued an MSc in Fisheries Biology and Management from the University College of North Wales Bangor and was awarded this degree in 1985. He joined The UWI as a Teaching Assistant in 1985 in the Department of Zoology and registered for a PhD under the supervision of Professor J.S. Kenny. He was appointed Assistant Lecturer in 1989. He worked on developing the technology for the culture of the cascadu for his doctoral research. When he completed his PhD in 1992he got eight publications in refereed journals from this study. He completed an MBA Heriot-Watt UniversityEdinburgh Business School in 2001specialising in Human Resource Management. Today not only is Professor Ramnarine known for his work in aquaculture but also for fish biology and fisheries management. He has worked on many local species such as cascadu tilapia prawns shrimp crabs oysters and river conch developing or improving ways of cultivating and breeding them. His focus has been on the spawning nutritional requirements and hatchery development and production of these important local species with the potential for aquaculture. He has developed methods for induced spawning in cascadu and river conch determining the nutritional requirements of both species and also the production technology for commercial culture. Internationally he has worked on the hatchery and production technology for the Malaysian prawn and has improved methods for the intensive culture of the tilapia. He has designed hatcheries and fish farms in Trinidad GuyanaBangladesh and Nepal all pro bonoand has done volun- tary work in Jamaica Guyana Suriname Cambodia Nepal Thailand and Bangladesh. Professor Ramnarines research on fisheries has focused on the development of sustainable fishing methods and he has worked closely with the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture Land and Marine Resources MALMR. With the involvement of post-graduate studentshe has determined the optimal mesh size for the fish pot fishery of Trinidadas well as the optimal mesh size for the local carite and mullet gillnet fishery. They have also evaluated the fish nursery function of the Caroni Swamp and he has developed a management plan for the fisheries resources of the Caroni Swamp. In recent years Professor Ramnarine started behavioural and evolutionary studies using the guppy as a model. He became interested in these fishes when he met Anne Magurrana postdoc- toral student at The University of Wales in the UK. During their collaborationhe realized that the common drain fishalso known as seven colours or millions which he collected as a boy were excellent model specimens to study evolution biology and behaviour. His work yielded numerous scientific papers with collaborative links with researchers from ScotlandWalesEngland CanadaAustraliaUSAItaly and Germany. He conducted surveys in both islands of Trinidad and Tobago to look at the diversity of fish and decapod crustaceans and has co-supervised two graduate students who studied the diversity of these groups. He developed a key for the identification of the freshwater fish of Trinidad and Tobago and conducted a study on the aquatic biodiversity of the Caroni Swamp with emphasis on the fish and shellfish diversity. He is currently part of a research team led by Professor A.Magurran of St Andrews Universitywhich was awarded a European Research Council Grant for the sum of 1.8 million euros for the project entitled Biological diversity in an inconstant worldtemporal turnover in modified ecosystems.This project which began in September 2010 involves research in freshwater ecosystems in Mexico the Amazon Scotland and Trinidad. The project ends in 2015 and has already revealed interesting findings on the effects of humans on aquatic species diversity and abundance. Professor Ramnarine is known for the development of urban aquaculture using the tilapia. He introduced aquaponics to Trinidad with the assistance of his long-standing collaborator Professor James Rakocy.He is involved in research on the develop- ment of aquaponics with the intention of screening local plants and fish species for the development of backyard systems. He is also working with a post-graduate student on the development of a by-catch model for the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of Paria. He has played an active role in national development of the indus- try he served on the Fisheries Monitoring and Advisory Commit- tee of the MALMR as Deputy Chairmanas well as on the National Wetlands Committee. He was also instrumental in leading a UWI Team that developed a Policy for the Management of Marine Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago. He is currently serving as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Institute of Marine Affairs and the Deputy Chairman of the National Environmental Assessment Task Force. As Chairman of the Institute of Marine Affairshe introduced tank culture of the Pacific White Shrimp.The project has been quite successful and it is the first attempt at culture of shrimp using a marine recirculating system in Trinidad Tobago. Under his direction the IMA constructed a hatchery at Grande Riviere for incubation of eggs from the leatherback turtle. This project has been successful and has enormous potential 117 towards conservation efforts of endangered sea turtles. His research has yielded one book one monograph one book chapter 64 publications in refereed journals 18 refereed confer- ence proceedings 13 refereed abstracts 18 workshop papers and 10 technical reports. He has supervised several students pursuing higher degrees in the field of fisheries science and management aquaculture fish shellfish diversity and behavioural ecology of the guppy.To date he has successfully supervised eight PhDs and 12 MPhils. Professor Ramnarine is currently Dean of the newly formed Faculty of Science and Technology and was appointed as the FST University Dean in 2014. Although not having a lot of free time Professor Ramnarine enjoys being outdoors walking hiking mountain biking and swimming.His other passion is breeding and showing bull mastiffs to date he owns five of these powerful and intelligent dogs. Selected Publications Deacon A.E. I.W. Ramnarine and A.E. Magurran. How reproductive ecology contributes to the spread of globally invasive fish. PloS One201169. Sievers C. E.M. Willing M. Hoffmann C. Dreyer I.W. Ramnarine and A.E.Magurran.Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy Poecilia reticulata population in Trinidad PloS One201275e38404 Van Wiljk S.J. M.I. Taylor S. Creer S. Dreyer S. F.M. Rodriguez and I.W.Ramnarine.Experimental harvesting of fish populations drives genetically based shifts in body size and maturation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment2013114181-187 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Physics Department of Physics Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82591 E-mail PROF. SATPAL SINGH SEKHON The research work of my group is related to various types of materi- als polymers ionic liquids composites membranes metal free catalysts nanomaterials for energy devices. A brief description of the research work in each area and some representative publica- tions are listed below Carbon Nanomaterials in collaboration with Sangmyung UniversityCheonan CampusRepublic of Korea Carbon nanomaterials multiwall carbon nanotubes and graphene have been developed for use in fuel cells.Graphene was functionalized with nitrogen containing polyelectrolyte PDDA and found to be suitable for use as a metal-free catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. The multiwall carbon nanotubes functionalized with hydrogen-containing groups can find applications in fuel cell membranes and thus MWCNTs were functionalized with different proton-containing groups using various single- and double-step chemical routes. As multiwall carbon nanotubes generally exist in bundles in the pristine form so they were dispersed by using a surfactant Triton X-100 prior to their functionalization. The CNTs functionalized with COOH groups show better functionalization.The maximum functionaliza- tion with -SO3H groups was achieved by a double-step chemical routewhereas the maximum functionalization with -PO3H2 groups was achieved with phosphoric acid. The incorporation of CNTs functionalized with the -SO3H and -PO3H2 groups in sulfonated polymers can be used to develop high-temperature fuel cell membranes. Fuel Cells in collaboration with Korea Institute of Energy ResearchDaejeonRepublic of Korea Inasmuch as fossil fuels are limited fuel cells are proposed as future power sources which are environment friendly and green in nature with no toxic emissions. Due to problems of CO poisoning and methanol-crossover with the membranes currently used in fuel cells there is need to develop alternate materials. We developed water-free proton conducting fuel cell membranes containing ionic liquids EMIBF4 EMIPF6. The effect of replacing water with ionic liquids in polymeric membranes based on recast Nafion and sulfonated poly aryl ether ketone SPAEK-6F on the morphology and the formation of ionic aggregates was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS. The membranes containing ionic liquids have ionic conductivity 0.01 Scm-1 above 100oC under ambient humidity have good mechanical strength and are thermally stable up to 300o C and are hence suitable for use in polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs at medium temperatures 100-200o C under non-humid conditions. The evolution of the ionomer peak with an increase in the concentration of the ionic liquid was studied for the first time for recast Nafion membranes containing an ionic liquid by SAXS.It was found that sulfonated polymers with distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts favour the formation of ionic clusters along with higher ionic conductivity.The correlation between ionic conductiv- ity and the cluster morphology can be quite helpful in designing new water-free proton-conducting membranes for fuel cells. Fluoride Ion Conductors in collaboration with Hiroshima Universityand Nihon UniversityJapan The ionic diffusional motion of various fluoride ion conductors containing ionic liquids ILs studied by Solid State NMR and DTA simultaneously has been found to be strongly correlated with the ionic conductivity. The ionic liquid containing an acidic counter- anion showed a high value of ionic conductivity 3.37 10-2 Scm-1 at 150C. The onset of ion diffusional motion in electrolytes contain- ing ILs takes place at the same temperatures at which line narrow- ing was observed in the NMR spectra and corresponds to the glass transition and melting temperatures. The transformation of the polymer from the semi-crystalline to amorphous phase at the melting temperature observed by XRD was also correlated with the ionic conductivity results. Nanoclusters of III-V Compound Semiconductors in collaboration with Dr.Vijay Kumar FoundationIndia The nanoparticles of III-Vn IIIAlGaInVNPSbn 1-150 are very important materials for various optoelectronic applications and have been studied from first-principles calculations.Our results show that in the small size range AlP13 and AlAs13 are magic. However in the intermediate size range GaP32 and GaAs32 are magic with AlP13 and GaP32 being more exceptional. The magic behaviour of III-V nanoparticles is material-specific and the bonding character also plays an important role. The GaN and AlN nanoparticles favour inorganic fullerene analogs of empty-cage structures with sizes of at least up to around 34 and they may continue to be so even for some larger sizes due to stronger sp2 bonding while for InN32 a filled-cage isomer becomes lower in energy.The InN nanoparticles were found to develop 3D structures faster as the size grows compared to AlN and GaN. We have also shown from first-principles calculations that 118 InN32 nanoparticles favour rock salt crystal structure though in bulkInN crystallizes in wurtzite structure. Growth of Nanocrystals in Ionic Liquid Media in collaboration with University of Caen France Discrete nanosized MnAlPO-5 crystals were synthesized by an ionic liquid-mediated approach.The ionic liquid edmimBr as a pore-filling agent directs selectively the synthesis of nanosized MnAlPO-5 crystals without the formation of any side phases. The non-encapsulated ionic liquid in the micropores of AFI nanocrystals can be recovered and reused for several synthesis batches.From an environmental perspectivethis process is extremely beneficial as it can prepare nanosized molecular sieves with a low amount of waste by reuse of the non-reacted reagents.Micro- to macroscopic aspects of the crystallization process of nanosized MnAlPO-5 under ionothermal conditions were also studied.Fully crystallinediscrete nanosized MnAlPO-5 particles grow through a surface-to-core reversed-growth mechanismand the single nanocrystals are finally liberated.This method can be used in designing novel microporous nanocrystals with suitable features for applications in membrane and sensor technologies. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells DSSC in collaboration with Korea Institute of Energy ResearchRepublic of Korea Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs are proposed as an alterna- tive to conventional silicon-based solar cells because of their high energy-conversion efficiencies ease of fabrication and low-cost production. We studied the effect of addition of single and binary additives to the electrolyte based on an IL 12-dimethyl-3- propylimidazolium iodide. The best cell performance was observed for electrolytes containing a binary additive mixture of DMAP and CEMI in equal molar ratio and 111 increase in the conversion efficiency from 636 to 7.07 was observed. Similarly the addition of a strong oxidizing agent 3 5-dinitrosalicylic acid to TiO2 paste also enhanced the overall efficiency of DSSC by 10.62. The overall DSC cell efficiency can be enhanced by choosing a suitable material for the blocking layer and optimizing layer forma- tion conditions. SELECTED PUBLICATIONS Prabhsharan Kaur S.S.Sekhon and Vijay Kumar. Empty Cage to Three-dimensional Structural Transition in Nanoparticles of III-V Compound Semiconductors The Finding of Magic AlP13 and GaP32 Physical Review B 2012 85085429 1-6. DOI 10.1103PhysRevB.85.085429 S.S.Sekhon J.S.Park J.S.Baek S.D.Yim T.H.Yang and C.S.Kim. Small- Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Water Free Fuel Cell Membranes Containing Ionic Liquids Chemistry of Materials 2010 22 803812 DOI10.1021cm901465p Prabhsharan KaurMun-Sik ShinNeha SharmaNamarta KaurAnjali Joshi So-Ryong Chae Jin-Soo Park Moon-Sung Kang and S.S.Sekhon. Non-covalent Functionalization of Graphene with polydiallyl dimethylammonium chloride Effect of a Non-ionic Surfactant International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2015 40 1541-1547.doi10.1016j.ijhydene.2014.11.068 119 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Chemistry Department of Chemistry Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83538 E-mail PROF. GURDIAL SINGH 120 My research encompasses a number of areas of organic chemistry. These are generally targeted at obtaining solutions to a range of diseases that are prevalent in humans and to date have no general treatments. The approach my team are employing entails the attainment of a sound understanding of the mechanisms involved that are the cause of the disease states. I am also interested in developing new methods that solve significant problems in the energy sector and in Green chemistry. Synthesis of cell surface epitopes of TUBERCULOSIS MYCOBACTERIUM My research team members are engaged in developing new methodology for the synthesis of galacto- and arabinofuranoside 1 2 synthesis targeted at the synthesis of naturally occurring oligosaccharide found on the cell surface of the TB organisms.Our strategy involves synthesis of 1-O-unprotected sugars for use as glycosyl acceptors in the preparation of 15-linked oligofurano- sides having free anomeric centres. While this approach could potentially lead to the formation of several glycosylation products if successful it would dramatically simplify the synthesis of oligofuranosides and possibly have general application in glycosylation. The team has been partially successful in this strategy in that we have prepared arabinosaccharides in 35-40 per cent yields with total selectivity.As a result of these findings we have undertaken density functional theory calculations in order to understand the equilbria that occur and are involved in these reactions. At present we are actively investigating applying this approach for the synthesis of furanosides of the ribo- and xylo- sugars. Carbohydrate Ionic Liquids My research team members and I have recently patented 2008 Ionic Liquids USA Patent 12126 639 our research in the area of carbohydrate based ionic liquids. The synthesis of these new classes of ionic liquids is outlined in the scheme below. We are actively pursuing the utilisation of these stable ionic liquids for the enantiomeric synthesis of secondary and tertiary alcohols. Supported Enzymes for Oligosaccharide Synthesis In order to develop more efficient synthesis of complex oligosac- charides we have successfully immobilised transferase enzymes and are investigating their employment for the efficient synthesis of saccharides utilising both unprotected and partially protected sugars. We have observed that we obtain rate enhancement of glycosylation reactions using these supported enzymes along with good chemical yields. Our target is the synthesis of the important hexasaccharide Globo-H. This antigen occurs on prostate cancer cells and can serve as a target for immune recog- nition. Our strategy will substantially shorten the synthesis of this important saccharide. To date we have prepared the three disaccharides in 100 mg quantities required as part of the conver- gent synthesis for this target. Synthesis of Glycosylcyanohydrins as Insect Antifeedants A distinctive group of natural products found in higher plants e.g. yams and cassava that exhibit a definite relationship to their biosynthetic precursors are the cyanogenic glycosides.A character- istic feature of the cyanogenic glycosidese.g.zierin 1is their ability to release hydrocyanic acid by hydrolysis and this process is often initiated by enzymes when the tissues which contain them are damaged by mechanical or other means. The penultimate step in the biosynthetic pathway involves transglycosylation with UDPG. Development of Novel Treatments for Dengue Viruses The dengue virus is the most important human pathogen that is borne by arthropods. Over the last decade the incidence of epidemics as a result of contracting dengue fever is estimated at up to 100 million cases annually. Furthermore the most severe form of the disease dengue hemorrhagic fever DHF has emerged in the same period resulting in 500000 cases worldwide. Every year these infections result in death in ca. 33 per cent of the reported cases. To date the sole method available to prevent dengue infections is the control of Aedes aegypti the mosquito vector. This approach has proved to be expensive and mostly unworkable with serial infections occur- ring in most of the tropical regions of the world where multiple dengue viruses circulate. In order to investigate the efficacy of new vaccines we are involved in the synthesis of the saccharide GlcNAc-Fuca1-6-b1-4GlcNAc-Manb1-4Mana1-6a1-3Man using 13-propanediylphosphate coupling protocols. Peptides Oxidation of Methane The efficient transformation of methane to methanol is chemically a difficult reaction to perform due to the C-H bond strength being 121 435 kJmol -1 making it the most inert hydrocarbon. Furthermore the conditions required for its conversion to the desired product methanol result in the latter undergoing additional chemical reactions.To our knowledge catalysts to overcome these problems remain elusive.In stark contrast to thismethane mono-oxygenase enzymes in nature convert methane to methanol at room temperature. The crystal structure of membrane-bound particu- late methane oxygenase has been reported recently. The active site of the enzyme contains Cu II ions. Our programme is utilising a fragment based approach to prepare the peptide SAIGLLSAVAATAFYAAHGE and to study its binding to copper and subsequent oxidation. An added benefit derived from this programme is that it will provide in-house skills and methodology for the synthesis of peptides and thus provide expertise for the synthesis of complex glycopeptides accomplish- ing a long term goal in my research. Selected Publications Ramroopsingh N. D. Narinesingh and G. Singh. Use of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in the optimization of the performance of amperometric biosensors Research Reviews in Electrochemistry2012394-104. Jeffrey Reignier Gurdial Singh Patrice G. J. Plaza-Alexander Nadia SinghJonathan M.GoodmanAlessia Bacchi and Francesco Punzo. Synthesis of 23-O-benzyl-ribose and xylose and their equilibra- tionTetrahedronAsymmetry2014251424-1429. Singh G. and A. Bhagaloo. Synthesis of disaccharides using glucosamine derivatives as an acceptor Am. Chem. Soc. National MeetingSan FranciscoAugust 2014. SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY Professor of Entomology Department of Life Sciences Tel 868 663 1334 ext. 83096 Fax 868 645 1732 E-mail PROF. CHRISTOPHER STARR 122 After developing an interest in insects at a very early age Profes- sor Starr turned his main attention to social insects -- that peculiar minority of species that lives in durablestructured groups known as colonies - about 40 years ago. The core of his scientific work has been in the nesting biology and colony life of social insects. Around this centre he has also worked on a the systematics of social insectsb the history of insect sociobiologyand c the lives of solitary insects and arachnids. Biology of social insects In his core area Professor Starr has worked on both broader theoretical questions and the lives of particular species. One of the most enduring problems in the former is the very existence and success of sociality given that there are good theoretical reasons to expect individual insects to be selfishly anti-social and the colony unstable. The general answer appears to lie in the ecological advantages that sociality confers on individuals.Profes- sor Starr has sought insight into this question by way of a exami- nation of the common basis and variation in the colony cycle analogous to the life cycles of individual organisms and b exam- ining why wasps of the genus Polistes known in Trinidad Tobago as Jack Spaniards do not revert to solitary life under any environmental conditions anywhere in the world. Most specialists on social insects work in just one of the four groupssocial waspssocial beesants and termites. While his main attention has been to social wasps Professor Starr is one of the very few with publications on the biology of species in all four groups. He credits this not to any outstanding breadth of knowl- edge or short attention span but with having spent most of his adult life in tropical areas that are very rich in species but have relatively few entomologists. Systematics of social insects Due to the species richness and scarcity of specialists in such areas as the West Indies there is often a dearth of knowledge about exactly what plants and animals are here which impedes their biological study. Professor Starr has sought to ease this situation through faunistic studies of social wasps and some solitary wasps and through contributing to others work on social bees ants and termites. In a few cases he has described and named new species of social wasps. He is especially pleased to have found a new species in Trinidad and named it Mischocyttarus baconi after the late Professor of ZoologyPeter R.Bacon. In addition patterns of geographic distribution biogeography of social insects in this archipelago are a system- atic question of interest. Professor Starr has addressed this through the working hypothesis that The manner of colony founding is the main factor in the relative ability of a species to establish itself on distant islands. The evidence shows that this is broadly truewith the few exceptions telling us something about how species reach new areas. History of insect sociobiology The scientific study of social insects goes back to the dawn of biology more than 2000 years agoand insect sociobiology is now a well-established discipline. Nonetheless the history of its growth and development has only just begun to be written Professor Starr has made one major contribution to this history and is now working on others which will mature in the next two or three years. Among these are examinations of a Franois Hubers explanation of how the honey-bee breathes like an individual organism and b Jan Dzierzons key role in forming honey-bee biology into a distinct discipline. Lives of solitary insects and arachnids Before he turned his main attention to social insects Professor Starr had long sought to penetrate the lives of other bugs. This continues as a serious side-interestwith main attention going to the nesting biology of solitary wasps. At intervals Professor Starr has conducted his departments summer field-ecology course BIOL 3068 around the topic of social insects. He is active in the organization of his discipline as archivist for the International Union for the Study of Social Insects IUSSI and a long-time executive member of the IUSSIs Bolivarian Section which has responsibility for Central America and northern South America. In addition he recently joined the board of the Pest Management Association of Trinidad Tobago PMATT and has represented the urban pest-management industry in some meetings with government. Selected Publications Starr C.K. Steps toward a general theory of the colony cycle in social insects. Pp. 1-20 in V.E. Kipyatkov ed. Life Cycles in Social Insects. 2006St PetersburgSt Petersburg Univ.Press. 123 Starr C.K. Nesting biology and sex ratio in a neotropical spider wasp Priochilus captivum Hymenoptera Pompilidae. Tropical Zoology20122562-66. Merritt N.R.C. C.K. Starr. Comparative nesting habits and colony composition of three arboreal termites Isoptera Termitidae in Trinidad TobagoWest Indies. Sociobiology201056611-22. 124 125 Science and Technology meeting the needs of expanding communities in South Trinidad 126 Chess players on Woodford SquarePort of Spain 127 The Faculty of Social Sciences under the leadership of Dean Errol Simmscontinues to demonstrate its commitment to the pursuit of scholarship through the research and publications carried out by its academic staff members and graduate students. The Faculty comprises four departments and several associ- ated institutes centres and units. The Departments include Behav- ioural Sciences Political Science Economics and Management Studies.The affiliated Centres and Institutes include the Caribbean Centre for Money and Finance CCMFCentre for Health Econom- ics HEU which falls under the Department of Economics Institute of International Relations IIR Sir Arthur Lewis Institute for Social and Economic Studies SALISES and The Institute for Gender and Development Studies IGDS. Each of these Institutes and Centres has concentrated areas of research that fall under the disciplinary areas contained or associ- ated with the Faculty of Social Sciences at present the largest faculty on The UWI St. Augustine Campus. The IIR faculty and students are engaged in cutting edge inter-disciplinary research projects that reflect the evolving nature of the global political economy and cover such areas as globalisation multilateral diplomacy regionalism environmental issues and global govern- ance.One such example is Dr.Indira Rampersads 2012 publication on anti-embargo activism and US-Cuba policy. The SALISES research agenda as part of an Institute that has a presence on the three UWI campuses focuses on themes of poverty money finance and risk governance and public sector reform and development theory and policy. In 2012 SALISES The University of the West Indies Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82104 E-mail THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Faculty Research Overview 128 Director Professor Patrick Watson received an award on behalf of his department for Most Productive Research Department. The IGDS is led by Professor Patricia Mohammed and is an interdisciplinary institute that has partnered with the faculty while maintaining relative autonomy.In 2014the IGDSBreaking the Silence Action Research Project has been awarded a Campus Award in the category Most Impacting Research Project. The Department of Economics is a regular commentator on national economic issues. One of its flagship events is the annual Conference on the Economy COTE. The Economics Department is home to a number of research clusters including The Sustainable Economic Development Unit SEDU SEDU was established in 1996 and concentrates on research in the areas of economic valuation vulnerability indices social ecology transportation natural resources management natural disasters and climate changetrade and the environ- mentpoverty and sustainability livelihoods and sustainable tourism. The Labour Market and Poverty Studies Unit LMPSUSome of the main areas of concern for the LMPSU are the structure and earnings of informal labour and the working poor youth training and labour supply the measurement and tracking of poverty levels and the efficacy of poverty allevia- tion policies and programmes. The Centre for Health Economics HEU The HEU was estab- lished in 1995 as one of the research clusters in the Depart- ment of Economics and is responsible for research training and project-related activities in health economics areas including social insurance poverty health and sustainable development equity health policy and management. Some of the most recent publications coming out of this depart- ment include books by Dr. Roger Hosein Mr. Martin Franklin on Applications of International Trade Theory The Caribbean Perspec- tive and Informal Commercial Importers in CARICOM Professor Alghaliths 2013 paper on The Interaction among Production Hedging and Investment Decisions as well as Dr. Birchwoods 2013 study on Macroeconomic instability in Small Island States. Department of Political Science was launched in September 2014.The research interests of faculty and students include Carib- bean local government in a context of good governance and the mpact of the illicit drug trade on the political life of Trinidad and Tobago. Faculty are also interested in institutional adaptation for democratic governance in multi-ethnic states public perceptions of parliament in Trinidad and Tobago Dominica Antigua Barbuda and Western Cape - South Africa. Professor Bissessars 2010 E-Governance challenges in a Plural Society provides one such example. Other areas of research include game theory and public sector reform in the Caribbean and a draft constitution for 129 Trinidad and Tobago. The Department of Management Studies was fully launched in 1967. Selected research interests of staff and students include tourism development in small island states and more specifically human resource development in the tourism industry in the regionthe impact of tourism development on small island states strategic brand management information systems in business and society the impact of information and communications technology on higher education finance and auditing manage- ment issues in performance measurement and information needs small business electronic commerce and its impact on Caribbean business corporate social responsibility and socio- ethical economy professional and applied ethics. Head of Department Professor Surendra Arjoon has written extensively on management and ethics. His 2012 collaboration with Dr. Rambocas on Student Learning Portfolio and the Teaching of Professional Ethics is one example of such research. The Department of Behavioural Sciences has introduced its biannual Postgraduate Conference in April 2013. This conference provided an opportunity for postgraduate students of the department to showcase their work through panel discussions and poster presentations. The second and most recent confer- ence was held in April 2015. Research in this department seeks to acquire deeper insight into the basic processes that motivate human behaviour through the disciplines of PsychologySociologyCriminologySocial work and Mediation Studies. The following are selected themes of research covered under each of the disciplines or related area studies Psychology Body image perception and its relationship to self-esteem and eating disorders using agegender and ethnicity psychology of media perception social psychology of fear of crime gangs nationwide study on the degree of conformity of social norms and values in Trinidad and Tobago and street children in the Caribbean. Criminology Crime statistics analysis and policy action in Trinidad and Tobago youth crime prison recidivism in Trinidad and Tobagoreductionrehabilitation and reformreducing youth deviance in schools building civil society and a healthy school modelbaseline study of civic attitudespsychological capital and school deviance. Sociology Disability in Trinidad and Tobago youth HIVAIDS crisis and opportunity in the Caribbean ecumenical discourses in multi-religious societies the involvement and characteristics of fathers on male adolescents self-esteem in Port-of Spain Trinidad and Tobago stratification in early childhood education in Trinidad and Tobago drug abuse amongst adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago and alcohol studies related to the family in Trinidad and Tobago men and masculini- ties on the fields of sport in the Caribbean ethnography of transnational self-help books in Trinidad militarisation and everyday life in the Caribbean Corruption and Bobol as everyday practicebehavioural logic in Trinidad. Mediation StudiesSocial Work Domestic Violence in Trinidad and Tobago why women stay in abusive relationships social services in Trinidad and Tobago psychosocial effects of HIVAIDS on mothers and infants cultural practices in mediation in the Caribbean and assessing psychosocial implications of HIVAIDS in the Caribbean. DR. NASSER MUSTAPHA DEPUT Y DEAN 130 131 SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Economics Department of Economics Tel 868 662 2002 E-mail PROF. MOAWIA ALGHALITH I provide a new simple approach to stochastic dynamic optimi- zation that is I am able to prove previously obtained results using a simpler method than the duality or the Hamilton- Jacobi-Bellman HJB partial differential equations methods. Applying this method to the standard portfolio model my approach is based on dividing the time horizon into sub- horizons and applying Steins lemma. Viscosity solutions were introduced in 1983 as weak solutions to partial differential equations PDEand constrained solutions were introduced later viscosity solutions have been widely used in stochastic analysis for many years. I was able to provide strong solutions to the stochastic optimization problem when the value function is not necessar- ily smooth in the spatial argument and this is achieved by bypassing the traditional HJB PDE and providing an alternative PDE that has a unique classical solution. My work has enabled me to overcome some of the major obstacles in the areas of stochastics and mathematical finance such as providing simple strong solutions to the non-linear stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman partial differential equation. As a result I have transformed the stochastic HJB PDE into an ordinary differential equation. It is well known that the value functions are generally non-smooth and that the existing meth- ods rely on the methods of viscosity and minimax weak solutions. Selected Publications Alghalith M. Preferences estimation without approximation. European Journal of Operational Research20102071144-1146. AlghalithM.A new approach to stochastic optimization.Journalof Optimization Theory and Application2012155669-672. Alghalith M.Forward dynamic utility functions A new model and new results. European Journal of Operational Research 2012 223 842-845. Web Links httpwww.springer.commathematicsjournal10957detailsPa geeditorialBoard httpwwwiijounals.compagejpmeditorialboard httpwww.sciencedirect.comsciencearticlepiiS0378437112 006814 httpwww.tandfonline.comdoifull10.1080.VAeZ5yoQi-c httpwww.springer.comjournal109571611page1 SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Business Professional Ethics Department of Management Studies Tel 868 662 2002 ext.8230 E-mail PROF. SURENDRA ARJOON Are you pre-occupied with being a wealthy person to have your name known and be admired by many peopleto hide the signs of aging to make friends with people who can be useful to you to pursue a comfort-seeking lifeto keep up with the latest fashionor to attend a wedding for the food and drink Do you get upset when you dont get your wayif someone gives you a bad-drive if your children dont behave the way you expectif someone speaks ill of youif you didnt get that promotion you deservedif life does not turn out how you wantif you have a lousy victimizing lecturer who does not prepare his or her work if your best friend betrays you when someone who you dont like gets a promotion or that person gets to the top by using some illicit means Do you often make choices to achieve maximum pleasure and minimize pain or suffering at any cost that you believe would bring happiness but ultimately turn out to be poor choices Then you may have an acute case of dragon-sickness At the beginning of the movie The Hobbit Bilbo Baggins life epitomizes the goodslife. He is self-centred and seeks as an end an easy going life acquiring all the material comforts and pleasures that life has to offer for self-gratification.This sounds like an attrac- tive way of life for which many strive. In fact ethical systems of hedonism and utilitarianism have been developed to support and rationalize such lifestyles. So what really is the problem here The answer is dragon-sickness.In the movieSmaugthe dragonlives in a place called Lonely Mountain which is filled with treasures and material wealth. Think about it of what practical use is all this wealth for a dragon He becomes so attached to this wealth that he goes berserk when he finds that one little trinket is missing. Many people view pleasure wealth power and being held in high esteem by others as the fount of happiness. The problem then is that one becomes a slave to such things and ends up being controlled by themthe possession possesses the possessor Dragon-sickness is an addiction or inordinate pursuit of and attachment to wealth lust of the flesh pleasure lust of the eyes honour and admiration lust for power that we believe will bring us happiness. Dragon-sickness is a seductive and insidious moral disorder or mental sickness that leads to unhappiness.We yearn to possess wealth social position public prestige professional appointments self-affirmation and validation by others as the aim in life. Not only that these things possess us but they involve endless worries and disappointments especially when there is a danger of losing them. In other words we lose our freedom and become victims at the mercy of peoples opinion or the prevailing dominant ideologies. The consequences of dragon-sickness are evil thoughts murder adultery fornication envy theft greed laziness false witness corruption bribery calumny detraction defamationand slanderin shortunhappiness. Professor Arjoons teaching research and practice attempt to cure dragon-sickness by using the latest teaching pedagogy theories and methods and andragogy practices that incorporate principles and virtues. In the field of business ethics he is currently internationally ranked fifth on the list of most cited articles for a specific article 12th among authors according to the number of articles published 14th on the number of citations in 135 virtue ethics article under study 15th on the number of citations in academic literature in general47th as one of the leading authors in Business Ethics Research and is recognized as one of three authors pioneering the development of the field on Enlightened Virtue Ethics. The UWI St Augustine Campus has been ranked as 2 in the world in Business Ethics Research based on mean weighted number of articles published in the leading journal in business ethics by institution. He is currently serving as Editor on Work Virtue and Happinessfor the Handbook of Virtue Ethics in Business and Manage- mentSpringer. Source Ferrero I. and A. Sison. quantitative analysis of authors schools and themes in virtue ethics articles in business ethics and management journals 1980-2011. Business Ethics A European Review.2014234375-400 Source Chan K. Fung H. Yau J. 2009. Business Ethics Research A Global PerspectiveJournal of Business Ethics. Citations and Awards 2014 418 citations of my scholarly work including the New York Times Business Section the Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics and the Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics 2014 Ranked 5th internationally on the list of most cited articles for a specific article Virtue Theory as a Dynamic Theory of BusinessJournal of Business Ethics 2000 Ranked 12th internationally among authors according to the number of articles published Ranked 14th internationally on the number of citations in 135 virtue ethics article under study 132 Ranked 15th internationally on the number of citations in academic literature in general Recognized as pioneering the development of the field on Enlightened Virtue Ethics 2012 Invited as part of an international editorial team of leading scholars in virtue ethics research for Handbook of Virtue Ethics in Business and Management in the title series on International Handbooks in Business EthicsSpringer Final Manuscript due 2015. 2012 The UWIGuardian Life Premium Teaching Award. 2011 Secured Platinum Sponsorship Guardian Asset Manage- ment US 30000 4th Biennial International Conference on BusinessBanking and FinanceDepartment of Manage- ment Studies. 2010 Internationally recognized as one of the leading authors in business ethics research 1999-2008 ranked 47th This citation has also enhanced Trinidad Tobago and The University of the West Indies on the global business ethics research map as it ranks this country No 2 in the world based on mean weighted number of articles published it the leading journal in business ethics by institution. Selected Publications Shah Kalim and Surendra Arjoon. Through thick and thin How self-determination drives the corporate sustainability initiatives of multinational subsidiaries. Business Strategy and the Environment 2014forthcoming. Macauley Michael and Surendra Arjoon. An Aristotelian-Thomistic approach to professional ethicsJournal of Markets Morality 2013 162521-542. Macauley Michael and Surendra Arjoon. Harmonizing the individual and the organization An Aristotelian-Thomistic model of corporate governance. International Journal of Organizational Theory and Behavior2012154548-576 133 134 From 1998 to 2010 the focus of my research has been on public sector reform and its impact on effective governance within the Caribbean region. My present research adds to my doctoral research completed in 1998 that examined reform in four countriesGuyana Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica and Barba- dos. It argued that policies and reform tools and mechanisms introduced by developing countries involve no more than large-scale policy transfer from developed countries. The great- est challenge in adopting such policies and programmes is that they often do not take into consideration the unique cultural environment of the country into which they were introduced. Furthermore many of the countries under review continued to adhere to the policies and programmes introduced by the departing colonial administrators.Similar to the scholars such as Lloyd Best Norman Girvan Edwin Jones John La Guerre and Selwyn Ryan the contention was that the Caribbean was still under-developed since they have not introduced policies or programmes that are suitable to plural or multicultural societies such as ours. Most of my current research focuses around this issue. To arrive at appropriate mechanisms I have suggested that these islands are as termed by Fred Riggs 1966transitional societies. Many third world countries are often caught in what Riggs termed a prism. They cannot be referred to as modern such as the United Kingdom or the United Statesbut neither can they be referred to as traditional societies. Thus one can expect to see systems and practices taken from abroad that are imple- mented in societies in which inherited kinship and family ties persist leads to degrees of dissonance. I explored the theme of dissonance in books published in 2007 and 2008. In an edited volume published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing I looked at reform efforts throughout the world and demonstrated that while many developed and devel- oping countries had introduced similar policies and mechanisms to reform their public sectors the Commonwealth Caribbean countries were largely driven by external agencies such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. This superim- position of policies often resulted in unsuccessful reform. In my ten years at The UWI I have continued research in the area of macro and micro perspectives of reform and governance. A number of my articles that have been published in major peer-reviewed journals such as Public Personnel Management International Review of Public Administration International Journal of Public Sector Management among others and have examined the challenges of reforming human resources within the public sector in Caribbean countries and the issues of discrimination race and ethnicity and governance and the civil society. Apart from my first book Colonial Administration Structural Adjustment and New Public Management School of Continuing Studies 2001 a landmark publication and second valuable contribution that focused on the legacy of colonial administration was The Crisis of Public Sector Reform in the Caribbean An Analysis throughtheuseofGameTheory 2008.This book has broken major ground in two dimensions. First it comprehensively documents research efforts from 1935 to present in five countries Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica St. Vincent and the Grenadines Barbados and Guyana. Second it attempted to answer the question that formed the basis of my discussion in my 1998 doctoral thesis.Why did reform attempts attain such dismal success in many of these islands The book concluded that mechanisms and policies had to be adapted to the environment and socio-economic structure of each country to be truly effective. During the period 2011 2012 my research in a number of policy areas was published as follows GovernanceIs It for Everyone NOVA Publishers2012 The Implementation of Government Policies in the West Indies Essays on the Challenges created by Cross Border Jurisdictions. Published by Edwin Mellen Publishers2012 Gangs in the Caribbean edited by Randy Seepersad and Ann Marie BissessarCambridge Scholars Publishing2013 A Tale of Two Plural Societies by Ann Marie Bissessar and John La GuerreLexington Press2013. My research efforts have led to the publication of eighteen books and over eighty articles and chapters in peer-reviewed international journals and books. At present I am engaged in research in a number of areas and hope to have completed at least four books by the end of 2015. My areas of research include The regulation of ethnic conflict in small societies with John La Guerre Anti-corruption failure in transitioning societies IMF AusteritiesWhose Governance Challenges of Public Affairs in the CaribbeanA Reader During the period 2010-2013 in addition to my research and teaching I served as the Head of the Department of Behavioural Sciences for two years. I also served as a member of the Integrity Commission of Trinidad and Tobago. Both stints were useful for understanding institutional administrations. SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Public Management Department of Political Sciences Tel 662 2002 ext. 82019 82023 E-mail PROF. ANN MARIE BISSESSAR 135 I have a number of MPhil and PhD students whose research will add enormously to the existing studies in these areas Mrs Marlene George-Mitchell political marketing research focussing on the 2015 General Elections in Trinidad and Tobago Mrs. Lue Anda Francis-Blackman - the role of civil societies in the governance of Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname Mr. Stephen Abiraj - assessing the institutions involved with the delivery of e-governance in Trinidad and Tobago Mrs Simone Francois-Whittier - foreign policy and its impact in Trinidad and Tobago Mrs Moulda George - training and performance in the Trinidad and Tobago public services. In addition I supervise four to seven Masters students in the areas of Mediation Government and Public Management. I also serve on numerous editorial boards as well as a peer reviewer for a number of international journals. I also serve as an expert member of the United Nations Organisation for Drug Control UNODC which is crafting a syllabus on anti-corruption for business and law schools throughout the world. To date I have attended Anti-Corruption workshops in MarrakeshJapanBoston Viennaand Panama. 136 SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Social Psycology Head Department Of Behavioural Sciences Director ANSA McAL Psychological Research Centre Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 2402 E-mail PROF. DEREK CHADEE Professor Derek Chadee is a Professor of Social Psychology in the Department of Behavioural Sciences St. Augustine Campus The University of the West Indies. In both 2002 and 2003 Professor Chadee received a CUNY City University of New York Exchange grant which allowed him short stays at Hunter College CUNY. In 2004 he was the recipient of a Senior Fulbright Research Award and spent extended periods at University of Central Florida and Hunter College City University of New York.During this time Professor Chadee was able to establish a cross-cultural research agenda on the social psychology of fear. The first-ever three-year longitudinal study on fear of crime was developed and implemented in Trinidad by Professor Chadee with his University of Sheffield colleague Professor Jason Ditton. This research programme has attracted the attention of many colleagues from different universities who are now part of an international collaboration team. He visited the University at AlbanySUNY and helped to facilitate the setting up of a Memoran- dum of Understanding with University at Albany and The Univer- sity of the West Indies. In the early 2000s Professor Chadee received a Ford Foundation Grant which allowed him to pursue his fear of crime research agenda.A few years later he jointly received a British Academy Grant to undertake a qualitative assessment of stability in longitudinal fear of crime measurements. Professor Chadee currently serves on the Senate of The Univer- sity of the West Indies and is Head of the Department of Behav- ioural Sciences.He is also Director of the ANSA McAL Psychological Research Centre The UWI. For the past 14 years Professor Chadee has conducted and supervised surveys and polls undertaken by the ANSA McAL Psychological Research Centre. These polls have become a widely-cited source of public opinion on the social and political landscape of Trinidad and Tobago. He has published several reports on governmentministerial performance current debates social issues and public opinions on the matter of national crime. These results appeared in a series of weekly publications in the Sunday Guardian. He has served as a Member on the United Nations Develop- ment Programme UNDP Technical Committee of the Crime and Security Study and is a member of the Mediation Board of Trinidad and Tobago appointed by His Excellency the President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Professor Chadee is also a member of the Academic Council of ROYTEC. In 2008 Professor Chadee received the recognition among sixty other academics across the three campuses as one of the 60 under 60. 60 under 60showcased the university as an innovative internationally competitive contemporary university that is deeply rooted in the Caribbean. Psychology Programmes and Association In 2005 Professor Chadee wrote the proposal for the introduction of the PhD Programme and MPhil Programme in Psychology. In 2006 he introduced the Psychology Special. In 2014 he spearheaded the introduction of the MSc Applied Psychology Programme. In 2013 he also worked with the Psi Chi International Office to set up a local chapter of Psi Chi at the St. Augustine Campus. In 1999 as a young academic Professor Chadee worked with students to establish a Psychological Association and was the Academc Advisor to the Association until 2009. International Collaboration As Director of The ANSA McAL Psychological Research Centre he was able to support the strategic objectives of strengthening regionality and building international partnerships UWI Strategic Plan 2012-2017 and has established a number of international linkages within the USUKand Europe. Through international collaborations Professor Chadee and Professor Aleksandra KosticUniversity of NisSerbia have submitted a joint book manuscript entitled The Social Psychology of Nonverbal Communications for publication by Palgrave Macmillan. He is also working on a book manuscript with Professor Jaipaul Roopnarine Jack Reilly Professor of Child and Family Studiesat Syracuse Univer- sitySyracuseNYUSA to the American Psychology Association. Research Interests Professor Chadees current research interest is in the area of the Social Psychology of Fear which includes research on fear of crime media images juvenile delinquency. He has a number of interna- tional research collaborations in the United Kingdom United StatesEurope and the Caribbean. In 2011 he conducted a study to evaluate the effects of gambling in Trinidad and Tobago. In 2008 he also completed a study on HIVAIDS Stigmatization for the National AIDS Coordinating Committee NACC.The data from this study will inform the policies proposed by the NACC. RDI Crime Victimization and Fear of Crime Survey in Trinidad and Tobago CVFCS In May 2014 Professor Chadee was awarded a grant from the 137 Research and Development Impact RDI Fund to undertake a Crime Victimization and Fear of Crime Survey in Trinidad and Tobagothe first of its kind in the region. Among the major objectives of this study is the benchmarking of crime victimization and fear of crime which has not been systematically researched country-wide. The anticipated impacts at both the social and national levels include assessing the expres- sion of victimization experiences actual and perceived by a representative sample of citizens assessing change in modus operandi of policing by taking into consideration crime victimiza- tion data in developing policing strategiesand assessing commu- nity responses to victimization. The following are some of the other studies he is currently undertaking. Personality and Fear of Crime The study of individual differences has been vigorously pursued in psychological research. However little consideration has been given to how these dynamics relate to individuals responses to actual or perceived environmental threat. In building a model of vulnerability to explain responses to criminal victimizationthe big five personality characteristics extraversion agreeableness conscientiousnessneuroticismand openness have been simulta- neously explored with global fear and rational calculations of risk. The results of structural equation modelling revealed a signifi- cant linkage between neuroticism and fear and risk estimations. Time Perspective and Criminal Victimization While several macro-perspectives have been put forward to explain the nature of fear of crime few researchers have consid- ered other personal intrinsic factors that have come to constitute important predictors of fear of crime. The findings of this research study revealed that individuals who maintain a balanced time orientation an adaptive combina- tion of positive and negative time perspectives had significantly lower levels of fear of crime than respondents who showed a more negative temporal profile. The Impact of Emotion Reactivity and Perceptions of Victimization Emerging literature points to the importance of psychological states in the construction and maintenance of the fear of criminal victimi- zation Chadee Ng Ying 2013. Emotional reactivity or the intensity of individualsresponse to a wide array of stimuliand with high levels of intensity Nock Wedig Homberg Hooley 2008 is explored as a predictive factor in a revisited model of fear of crime. Media Representation of Crime Research continues on the assessment of the social psychological consequences on the representation of crime in the media. The media often capture the imaginations of their readers rather than the facts. However the public needs the media to know as well as to understand day to day events. This study is undertaking a content analysis of crime reports in the daily newspapers for the period January 1 2003 to December 31st 2012. Copy-Cat Behaviour Expansion of Research This study assesses the cognitive processing of informationlevels of empathy and copycat behaviour among juveniles in high and low risk institutions. This study was undertaken in collaboration with Professor Ray Surrette University of Central Florida. Selected Publications KosticA.and D.Chadee.Socialpsychologyofnonverbalcommunica- tion. 2014LondonPalgrave Macmillan Chadee D. and N. Ng Ying. Predictors of fear of crime General fear vs.perceived risk of victimization.Journal of Applied Social Psychol- ogy20134391986-1904. ChadeeD. Theories in social psychology.2012Oxford Wiley-Blackwell 138 139 San Fernando Water taxi and users 140 Professor W.Andy Knight took up his current post as Director of the Institute of International Relations St. Augustine Campus The University of the West Indiesin January 2013on secondment from the University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta Canada. Throughout Professor Knights career his main focus of research has been on the United Nations system Global Governance and the evolution of multilateralism. His recent research has spanned a wide area including female suicide terrorism home grown terrorism child protection and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the new global norm of the Responsibility to Protect. Publications and Writings He has published or co-published 13 peer-reviewed books and monographs in excellent well regarded presses and he currently has five books in Press. Global Politics a book co-written with Tom Keating is widely used in universities and colleges across Canada the US and the UK and has done so well that the publisher has commissioned Professor Knight to a second edition with his co- editor. The second edition is in the final stages of completion with the publication date set for spring 2016. One of his recent co-edited volumes Building Sustainable Peace also with Tom Keating was published by the United Nations University Press in collaboration with the University of Alberta Press and has been adopted widely in Peace and Conflict courses at several universities around the globe. Two of Professor Knights books on the United Nations are used frequently as primary or supplemental texts in international organi- zation and international law courses worldwide and are quoted heavily by international organizations and legal scholars. Professor Knight has had over 65 research papers published as chapters in significant scholarly books dealing with such subjects as female suicide terrorism peace building the Responsibility to Protect international law Canadian multilateralism and foreign policy arms embargoes economic sanctions Caribbean security regionalismthe United Nations and international securitymilitary interoperability Canada-US relations civil-military relations the future of the UN Security Councilto name a few.His research work is also found in about 35 articles published in several of the leading international peer-reviewed journals such as African Journal of Political Science and International Relations African Security Etudes Internationale Global Governance Global Responsibility to Protect International Relations of the Asia-Pacific International Social Science Journal Third World Quarterly Journal of Constitutional Studies Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict Latin American Politics and Society McGill International Review Perspectives on Global Development and Technology Religious Studies and Theology and Spaces of Identity. Professor Knight has written several book reviews for major academic and policy journals and has presented over 100 research papers at conferences and workshops in Europe Asia North and South America and the Caribbean. As a principal investigator or collaboratorProfessor Knight has received grants to date in excess of Can 8 million TT47 million. These grants come from a variety of granting bodies e.g. the Qatar Foundation the Worldwide Universities Network United Nations University the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights the Alberta Centre for Child Family and Commu- nity Researchthe Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada the International Development Research Centre and the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Prepared- ness.He has been awarded several major grants from the Alberta Government the Canadian International Development Agency CIDA the Canadian Consortium on Human Security CCHS the Killam Fund and the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada SSHRC for a research project dealing with Children and Armed Conflict Impact Protection Rehabilitation. Conferences for that project were held in collaboration with the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre KAIPTC in Ghana the University of Southern California Law School and the University of Alberta. Earlier phases of this project were funded by the UNU. The website for the project is httpwww.arts.ualberta.cachildrenandwar. Exploring New Areas of Research Recent research funding from SSHRC has allowed Professor Knight to carry out research on Female Suicide Terrorism with Tanya Narozhna of the University of Winnipeg.The results of that research will be published by the University of Toronto Press in 2015. His induction in 2011 as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada FRSC demonstrates the recognition which his work has received not only in Canada but internationally. The FRSC is the highest honour that can be bestowed on an academic in Canada. In the citation for this awardthe Royal Society viewed Knight as a world leader in research on the study of international organiza- tionsglobal governance and human security.This honour recog- nized the impactful prolific and innovative nature of his research and his public intellectualism. Since coming to The UWI Professor Knight has been working on a number of major research projects. The most important one SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of International Relations Director Institute of International Relations The University of the West Indies and Professor Department of Political Science University of Alberta Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 2010 E-mail Website httpwww.arts.ualberta.caaknight PROF. W. ANDY KNIGHT 141 is being funded by the Qatar Foundation US 1 million which examines the issue of Piracy in the Horn of Africa. The purpose of this qualitative research study is to unearth the causes conse- quences and responses to the activity of pirates operating around the Horn of Africa. The topical study explores how policymakers experts and civil society leaders perceive the challenges and responses to the international crime of piracy. Professor Knights commitment to regional integration in the Caribbean has resulted in collaborative research between scholars at The University of the West Indies and the University of Alberta.As a recipient of a major grant from the Social Sciences and Humani- ties Research Council SSHRC of CanadaProfessor Knight brought together scholars from both institutions as well as from universities in the US and China to produce a new edited volume on Remapping the Americas Trends in Region-making. This book published by Ashgate in the UKsurveys the trend of the revitalization of regions around the world promoted by a new desire on the part of most states to merge into regional entities and places the regionaliza- tion in the Caribbean within that movement.The volumeco-edited by Professor Knight Dr. Hamid Ghany The UWI and Dr. Julian Castro-Rea University of Alberta is now being used by a number of universities in Canada Mexico and the US and will be formally launched in Trinidad during the 2014-2015 academic year. Giving back to the Caribbean Professor Knight made a decision in 2012 to give back to the Caribbean the region of his birth. His efforts so far have paid dividends with the establishment of the Diplomatic Academy of the Caribbean the launch of a new peer-reviewed journal the Caribbean Journal of International Relations and Diplomacy the decision by UNICEF to make the Institute of International Relations the Hub of the Caribbean Child Rights Observatory Network and the revitalization of the Institute of International Relations. Selected Publications Knight W. Andy Julian Castro-Rea and Hamid Ghany. Re-mapping the AmericasTrends in region-making.2013LondonAshgate. Knight W. Andy and F Egerton The Routledge handbook of the responsibility to protect.2012OxfordRoutledge. Mahdavi Mojtaba and W. Andy Knight. Towards the dignity of difference Neither end of history nor clash of civilizations 2012 LondonAshgate. 142 SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Commercial and Environmental Law Department of Management Studies Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 83530 E-mail PROF. RAJENDRA RAMLOGAN Professor Rajendra Ramlogan obtained a BA in English Literature from The University of the West Indies in 1983 LLB Hons. UWI in 1985LLM Hons. in International Legal Studies from the New York University School of Law USA in 1993 and PhD in International Environmental Law from the University of Cambridge UK in 2000. He has also attended a number of professional courses in the course of his work. Professor Ramlogan has varied work experience in both commercial and academic fields locally and abroad. For several years he was Legal Counsel Special Projects for the Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago and then a consultant for the Environmental Management Authority. He has lectured Environmental Law and Policy at the Institute of International Relations and currently he is Professor of Commercial and Environ- mental Law at The UWI he also lectures in Environmental Law for the MSc programme at the Anton de Kom University in Suriname. Professor Ramlogan has considerable work experience in the petroleum and petrochemical sector in both upstream and down- stream activities having prepared and negotiated contracts involving major international oil companies including EXXON ChevronTotaland BHP.He served on an American Bar Association Panel advising the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on its draft Petroleum law. He has assisted in the development of an appropriate strategy and contractual arrangements for divest- ment of state assets. He is an expert in environmental law and has assisted in the drafting of various laws in Trinidad and Tobago e.g. the Environ- mental Code of Trinidad and Tobago the Air Pollution Rules the Certificate of Environmental Clearance Rulesthe Draft Wildlife Bill and the Draft Protected Areas Bill as well as reviewing the Planning and Development of Land Bill for Trinidad and Tobago Gap Analysis of the National Legal Environmental Regime of Trinidad and Tobago including compliance with international legal instruments Gap Analysis of fisheries legislation in Trinidad and Tobago review and amendment of legislation relating to protected areas forests and wildlife in Trinidad and Tobago Preparation of a Report on Mainstreaming Climate Change into National Development and Capacity-Building for Participation in Carbon Markets TPreparation of a Carbon Capture and Storage Regulatory and Permitting Matrix For Trinidad And Tobago for the Global Carbon Capture Storage Institute in Australia T Internationally he has provided consultancy services for an Inter-American Development Bank Consultancy on behalf of The University of the West Indies for an analysis of the legal environ- mental regime of Guyana and drafted Environmental Law and Regulations for Montserrat. Professor Ramlogan is a member of the Trinidad and Tobago Bar Associationthe American Bar Association and is a Fellow of the Cambridge Commonwealth Society. Professor Ramlogan has authoredco-authored six books since 2004 he has chapters in three other books and since 1991 he has had a number of papers published in international academic journals and has presented papers at numerous professional meetings and conferences both locally and overseas. Selected Publications Ramlogan Rajendra. Sustainable development Towards a judicial interpretation2011- Martinus Nijhoff292pp. Ramlogan Rajendra and Natalie Persadie. Commonwealth Caribbean business law 2010 Second Edition London RoutledgeCavendish Press. Ramlogan Rajendra. Judicial review in the Commonwealth Caribbean2006 Routledge Cavendish344 pp. 143 Petroleum plant on the horizon 144 SOCIAL SCIENCES Professor of Applied Economics Director Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social Economic Studies Tel 868 662 6965 Fax 868 645 6329 E-mail PROF. PATRICK KENT WATSON Patrick K Watson is Professor of Applied Economics and Director at the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies of The University of the West Indies St Augustine Campus. He holds Masters and Doctoral degrees in Mathematical Economics and Econometrics from the Universit de Paris I Panthon-Sorbonne and a Bachelor of Commerce degree with Accounting as a princi- pal subjectfrom the University of Leeds. Professor Watson has been at The UWI since 1980 during which time he has been assistant lecturer lecturer senior lecturer and now professorHe has also been deputy dean and dean of the Faculty and visiting fellow at Cambridge University and the Universities of Warwick and Leicester. While Dean of the Faculty Professor Watson introduced the Distance Education programme with B.Sc. Management Studies introduced executive training programmes conducted through- out the Caribbean improved access to computer training for the wider public including courses in computer repair A MCSE and others reformed the degree programmes computerized the Faculty and modernised teaching methods. He specializes and is widely published in empirical studies related to the Caribbean Economyin particular in the areas of economic modellingmoney and finance and climate change. Using mainly econometric techniques he has worked in areas such as the balance of payments monetary and fiscal policy savings the measurement of capital stock stock market efficiency and the informal sector. His work has been published in journals including Applied Economics International Economic Journal The Journal of Develop- ment Studies Journal of Economic Studies Journal of Applied Financial Economics and Social and Economic Studies. He has also published chapters in edited books. Over the years Professor Watson has authored or co-authored a number of technical reports for organizations such as the European Union the Inter- American Development Bank CARICOM UNECLAC and First Caribbean International Bank among others. In addition to his teaching and research Professor Watson has supervised and continues to supervise a number of PhD MPhil and MSc theses and projects. In recent yearsProfessor Watson applied for and was awarded a number of research grants from external agencies including several concerned with climate change in the regioncompetitive- ness and growth in Trinidad and Tobagoand others. He has been consultant to the Caribbean Development Bank Republic Bank Ltd the Ministry of Social Development Central Bank of Aruba Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago First Caribbean International Bank among others. He has also been a senator in the Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago and a director of the Central Bank. He currently serves as Chairman of the Trinidad and Tobago Securities and Exchange Commission and as a member of the Board of Directors of the International Organi- zation of Securities Commissions. Selected Publications Sookram Sandra and Patrick Kent Watson. Small business partici- pation in the informal sector of an emerging economy. Journal of Development Studies200844101554-1576. Patrick Kent Watson. The efficiency of the stock market in the CARICOM sub-region An empirical study. Applied Financial Economics200919231915-1924 Sonja S. Teelucksingh and Patrick Kent Watson. Linking tourism flows and biological biodiversity in Small Island Developing States SIDS evidence from panel data. Environment and Development Economics 2013 18 4 392-404. Available at httpdx.doi.org10.1017S1355770X13000120 145 146 147 Shark and bake vendor in Maracas Bay 148 Over the last decade gender and development studies has struggled for its recognition as rigorous in methodologyobjective in its content and justified in its undertaking to examine gender injustice as another form of social injustice that deserves equal attention. Gender scholars have a commitment to enhancing the lives of the people we serve inside and outside of the academy. Combining Gender and Cultural Studies The inter- and trans-disciplinarity of gender studies was the perfect setting for a scholar like myself.My disciplinary promiscuity has allowed for a combination of Gender and Development Studies and Cultural Studies. If the former is devoted to gender identity as a central category of analysis the latter investigates how culture creates and transforms individual experiences everyday life social relations and power. By treating with both areas individually I have contributed to the body of Caribbean scholarship and practices in each. By combining and straddling both areas I have introduced and expanded a gender perspective into Caribbean cultural studies in the latter more specifically contributing to the academic exploration of visual studies and visual intelligence in and of the region. Gender While I continue to develop my own research and publication in areas that pertain to Caribbean feminist thought gender and history gender and cinema and gender and development the most distinguishing research accomplishment during 2010- 2014 relates to gender and development policy and planning with international institutions regional and local governments and academic initiatives. Between 2010 and 2013 I was lead writer of two National Gender Policies in the Caribbean. The British Virgin Islands gender policy was completed in 2011 and passed by the BVI government by 2012. I also served between 2011-2012 as lead member of the Technical Committee appointed by the Cabinet of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to redraft the 2006 version of the Trinidad and Tobago National Gender Policy. The current draft was laid before the Cabinet in 2012 and remains contentious due to reservations on the definition of gender and reactions against heteronormative sexuality. Between 2011 and 2013 I again served on a Cabinet appointed committee to examine the situation of young men and criminality in Trinidad resulting in the report httpwww.ttparliament.orgdocuments2197.pdf that was laid before the Cabinet of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago in 2013. In recognition of the above bodies of work in 2014 I was awarded the Most Outstanding Researcher Faculty of Social Sciences in the Research Awards scheme of the Office of the Campus PrincipalThe UWISt Augustine. My interest in gender and public policy as a specialization in gender has expanded over the last decade particularly through the above involvement in generating public policy documents. The experience of participating in an interna- tional project Building Global Democracy httpwww.buildingglobaldemocracy.orgcontentpatricia- mohammed organized through the University of Warwick Global Studies Programme and serving as gender peer reviewer for the Caribbean Human Development Report on Citizen Security 2013 added to this growing expertise. As a result I was invited to write three reviewed chapters for gender and public policy book publications. In these papers I analyzed the value of national gender policies to national development and examined the inclusion of gender as an index of equality and discrimination. Cultural Studies The path-breaking body of work Imaging the Caribbean Culture and Visual Translation Macmillan UK 2009 which attracted reviews by several scholars and journalists and is becoming a primary text for courses ranging from historysociologygender studies visual and creative arts was a major achievement in 2010. This print publication continued to be complemented by a documentary film series A Different Imagination which is accessible to viewers globally after it was accepted for an online Film Festival Humanity Explored in 2011. httpwww.cultureunplugged.comstorytellerPatricia_Mohamme dmyFilms. Between 2010 and 2013 I was privileged to have three major international invitations to present this body of work at public lectures panels and screenings both regionally and internationally at University of Toronto in 2010 with a book tourat University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras in March 2012 in the prestigious public lecture series Conferencias Caribeas and in November 2012 as visiting professor Rutgers University. Outputs of the latter residency include a video-taped interview What is the Caribbean which is posted online. I have maintained a growing interest and competency in SOCIAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE FOR GENDER DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Professor of Gender and Cultural Studies Head Institute for Gender and Development Studies Tel 868 663 2002 ext. 83573 Mobile 868 684 3501 E-mails PROF. PATRICIA MOHAMMED 149 making documentary film since 2003 and am committed to both teaching with film as well as making the transformative ideas of scholars from within the academic more accessible to popular audiences. In 2012 I produced the narrative film on masculinity in Trinidad - The Cool Boys - directed by Michael Mooleedhar. In 2013recruited to the RDI funded research project Leveraging Built and Cultural Heritage of East Port of Spain led by Dr. Asad Moham- medI supervised the research component on cultural heritage of East Port of Spain and co-directed the film City on a Hill a primary output of this project completed in 2015. The film examines the past contribution of those who populated and settled this space in history and attempts to reverse the stigmatized images of violence indolence poverty and alienation and promote the communitys vision on how it might harness its cultural resources to change its fortunes. The incorporation of two seemingly disparate areas of interest - of gender and culture - the deployment of new methodologies made possible by advancement of digital technology and combining these to provide valuable insight and solutions to social problems has preoccupied me as a researcher and scholar considerably more over the last five years. Selected Publications City on the Hill. Directors Patricia Mohammed and Michael Mooleedhar2014.Documentary45 minsfunded by the Research Development Impact Fund and produced as the visual supporting component of the UWI Research Project Leveraging Built and Cultural Heritage of East Port of Spain Project Leader Dr Asad Mohammed. Mohammed Patricia. The Harder they fall Masculinity and the cinematic gaze In Love and power Caribbean discourses on gender ed.Eudine Barriteau.2013KingstonJamaicaThe University of the West Indies Press. National Policy for Gender Equity and Equality for the British Virgin Islands to the Government of the BVI. 2011.With Deborah McFee Jane Parpart and Gaietry Pargass 150 My research interests have been inter-disciplinary and multi- disciplinary concentrated in the broad areas of socio- economic development women masculinities and gender. I was fortunate to begin my scholarly career at the period when this new and exciting area of research in Womens and Gender Studies was being introduced. An emerging field where there was space to explore new scholarly directions to create new bodies of knowledge and to lay the groundwork on which future scholars would build. More specifically my work has related to the examination of womens labour and social move- ment history radical Caribbean social and feminist thought the gendered implications of global economic development gender raceethnicity and citizenship feminist theory environmental studies gender and sexualities and Caribbean masculinities. In the area of womens labour and social movement history my work was supported by involvement in coordinating a regional research project in the 1980s started while still a graduate student at the Institute of Social Studies The Hague on the History of Womens Movements and Organisations in the Caribbean.That work created for the first time in the region an understanding that a womens movement existed in the English-speaking Caribbean since the late 19th Century there- fore concern with womens emancipation was not a 20th Century import from the United States and that womens work outside the home was central to plantation agriculture during the slave and post-emancipation periods and Caribbean women had been active in the labour movement since the post-emancipation period. This historical base has continued to influence my work since then. Gender ethnicity and difference In the early 1990s I began work on the research theme Race Class and Gender in the Caribbean then part of a larger project on The Future of the Caribbean led by then ISER Mona Director Prof. J. Edward Greene. I was struck at that time by the fact that during the late twentieth centuryinter-ethnic tensions were the cause of major conflicts in numerous parts of the world. Such conflicts as was seen in Rwanda were major causes of large-scale bloodshed. But they have specific gender implications. Central to these conflicts are concerns related to identity citizenship and unfulfilled manhood. For example women perceived as the bearers of culture and the protectors of the purityof the group are often sexually violated as part of the spoils of war. In many ways this represents a triumph of one group of men over another and this act of triumph takes a sexual form. Attacks on women such as rape or forced pregnancy therefore are ways through which such conflicts take place through the bodies of women. Most of these conflicts are the legacy of divide and rule colonial practice reflected today in post-colonial ethnic contes- tations. My research therefore sought to explore the specific ways in which inter-ethnic relations were constructed in multi- ethnicpost-colonial societies like Trinidad and Tobagothe ways in which these were shaped by history and the contemporary meanings for the people involved.It also aimed at providing the local population with understandings of their own role in perpetuating the myths and stereotypes that fuelled such tensions and which though benign at present could have deleterious consequences in the future. More recently I have also analysed the role of colonial and post-colonial censuses in the process of racial formation Winant 1994 59 in Trinidad and Tobago. As a result of this research 11 research papers have been written about nine of which are published as book chapters or refereed journal articles. Theorizing Manhood and Masculinities in the Caribbean a Beginning The theorising of masculinity and manhood and its relationship to femininity and womanhood is a significant development and important component of recent Caribbean feminist theorising. There is also a general concern in the region about the increase in young male criminality and resistance to formal education. In 1996 I organized the first regional conference on Caribbean masculinities which resulted in the bookInterrogating Caribbean Masculinities which brings together a multi-disciplinary range of essays addressing many of the issues of concern to our region today.Another result of this conference was the formation of the Caribbean Network for Studies of Masculinities which was located in the University of Puerto Rico.The UWI is recognized as a Centre of Excellence in Masculinity Studies world-wide. For example a sizeable body of research on gender and academic performanceachievement has emerged to which I contributed recently.This has continued to be a critical component of my own research and led to the development of the course Men and Masculinities in the Caribbean a second year course now taught to students in the Bachelor of Education as well as students in the Humanities and Social Sciences. SOCIAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE FOR GENDER DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Professor of Gender Social Change and Development Deputy Principal Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82184 E-mail PROF. RHODA REDDOCK 151 Multi-disciplinary research collaboration In order to expand the boundaries of gender research beyond the Centre for Gender and Development Studies and to integrate gender analysis into scholarship more widely at The UWI. we expanded into two main areas. The first Gender Environment and Natural Resource Use which included the actionresearch project The Nariva Swamp A Gendered Case Study carried out in collaboration with Dr. Grace Sirju-Charran plant biochemist of the Department of Life Sciences.This project sought to integrate gender analysis and therefore people as gendered beings into environmental studies and to develop among community members a sense of their role as custodians of this endangered wetland. A multi-disciplinary research team including five junior researchers drawn from agriculture economicspolitical sciencegender studies and ecology worked on this project. A direct outgrowth of this has been the Women Gender and Water Programme still on stream at the Institute of Gender and Development Studies and involving an interdiscipli- nary team of scholars led by Dr.Fredericka Deare Soil Scientist. An important component in these collaborative research projects in addition to academic publications has been work in communities influencing public policy social activism and the creation of public education materials including audio-visuals. The second area which is also still on-going is in the area of Gender and Sexualities. This often taboo research area has been contradictorily opened up to research funding through the HIV pandemic. This inter-disciplinary research programme Gender Sexualities and the Implications for HIV began in 2004. Phase 1 resulted in the production of an annotated bibliography an international conference which resulted in an edited collection and a preliminary qualitative study on attitudes taboos and behaviours related to sexuality among students at The UWI St. Augustine Campus.Phase II of this project focused on two major sub-projects. The first the action-research project Breaking the Silence Child Sexual Abuse a Multi-Sectoral Approach produced the following a study on the provision of services related to child sexual abuse and incest in Trinidad and Tobago a review of the Caribbean literature a review of the legislation related to child sexual abuse and incest in Trinidad and Tobago and a series of community interventions in three communities. The second project investigated sexual cultures in Trinidad and Tobago through an ethnographic study of Ariapita Avenue in Port of Spain and a qualitative study of sexual cultures among UWI students 18-30. These data are currently being analyzed for publication. Radical Caribbean Social and Feminist Thought Here I have sought to contribute to the recognition of a Carib- bean intellectual tradition. In particular I have focused on the praxis of Caribbean feminist and other radical intellectuals who have contributed to the anti-colonial and pan-Africanist movements. So far four articles have been published in this area and more are envisaged.In addition based on research for an article on Islamic women and mosque movements which is awaiting publication I plan a major work on the Trinidad and Tobago Islamic scholar Moulvi Ameer Ali. Selected Publications Roberts Dorothy Rhoda Reddock Dianne Douglas and Sandra Reid eds. Sex power and taboo Gender sexuality and HIV The Caribbean and beyond Kingston Jamaica Ian Randle Publishers 2009. Franois Elma. The NWCSA and the workers struggle for change in the Caribbean in the 1930s LondonNew Beacon Books1988. Reddock Rhoda. Women labour and politics in Trinidad and Tobago A history London Zed Books 1994 CHOICE Outstanding Academic Book1996. 152 153 Self employed street vendor in Port of Spain 154 Hospital patient having blood tested 155 Introduction The Faculty of Medical Sciences FMS is comprised of the Schools of Medicine Dentistry Veterinary Medicine Pharmacy Advanced Nursing Education and Optometry. The six schools working under the umbrella of One Health provide unique opportunities for multi- and interdisciplinary research and this has resulted in various research projects such as studies on cardiovascular disease type 2 diabetes dengue vaccines against leptospirosis mental health asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD Alzheimers disease wound healing dental health cancer and approaches to medical education. Synergies created through collaborations within the faculty are further enhanced by links with other UWI faculties and with regional and international institutions. School of Medicine The School of Medicine comprises four departments namely Preclinical Sciences Paraclinical Sciences Clinical Medical Sciences and Clinical Surgical Sciences. Department of Preclinical Sciences This department offers graduate research programmes in Anatomy Biochemistry Physiology Molecular Genetics Neuro- science and Human Nutrition.The on-going research in the depart- ment is broadly divided into infectious disease and non- communicable disease NCD research. In the case of infectious The University of the West Indies Tel 868 645 3232 ext.5026 5027 Fax 868 663 9836 E-mail THE FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES Faculty Research Overview 156 diseasesthere is strong emphasis on emerging virusesin particu- lar those transmitted by mosquitoes e.g. dengue chikungunya yellow fever and bats e.g. rabies. Much of the research aims to determine ecological and evolutionary factors that underlie epidemic behaviour in order to better inform surveillance efforts and to develop models that may be used to predict patterns of disease spread. Recent efforts are aimed at characterizing host- immune responses to chikungunya infectionin turn anticipating the development of vaccines and therapeutics. For NCDs and chronic conditions the spotlight is on diabe- tes obesity cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. For exam- plethere is work aimed at understanding the metabolic derange- ments that occur during chronic consumption of high carbohy- drate diets associated with risk for type 2 diabetes. The relation- ship of inflammatory markers metabolic variables adiponectin and anthropometric variables with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases was established by staff from the department. Preliminary surveys conducted by researchers within the department also finalized recommenda- tions in educating diabetic patients on the use of glucometer insulin administration and a healthy lifestyle for proper blood glucose levels. The effects of high calorie intake on the brain and possible links to Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease are also under investigation. Activity also concentrates on the use of natural products herbal medicine in the treatment of wound healing diabetes cancer and hypertension and bioinformatics approaches which are being used to determine the adaptation of cancer clones to survive therapeutic regimes. Department of Paraclinical Sciences The department of Paraclinical Sciences offers several MSc MPhil and PhD programmes to train and better equip graduates in their specific fields of interest.Department staff are actively involved in asthma and other allergic disorder research.Researchers from the department conducted a survey of allergic asthma rhinitis and eczema among over 8000 school-aged children in Trinidad and Tobago and this has contributed to the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood. In terms of chronic disease management work led by the Department of Paraclinical and Preclinical Sciences has shown that type 2 diabetic patients at primary care settings in Trinidad and Tobago have poor glycae- mia control. A follow-up study on self-blood glucose monitoring has demonstrated the benefits of empowering patients to take the management and care of their blood glucose levels out of the laboratories to their own homes. Researchers from Pre- and Paraclinical Sciences are studying the use of natural products in the treatment of diabetesepilepsy and peptic ulcer. Department of Clinical Medical Sciences This department provides several DM MSc MPhil and PhD programmes in various specialties.The faculty has been involved in several national surveys of the nutritional status of the general population. There have also been community-based interven- tions in the reduction of disease burden resulting in the genera- tion of data that assists in informing regional policy makers. Additionally the FMS researchers are playing a major role in the Regional Non-Communicable Diseases Surveillance System for advances in the regions capacity to deliver cost-effective health services associated with NCDs. The diabetes surveillance study funded by the Helen Bhagwansingh Diabetes Education Research Prevention Institute DERPI has screened over 66000 primary and secondary school students for diabetes from which the study recommended intervention with healthy life style education in preventing the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in school children. The Department of Clinical Medical Sciences is also involved in a wide range of research activities with extensions in the area of mental health and neuroscience. These include work on mental health and interventions in the prison population a nationwide study on the prevalence of dementia and its socio-economic impact in conjunction with the Centre for Health Economics early detec- tion of dementia using antibody testing depression substance abuse psychosis and risk factors for schizophrenia. Research into sexual abuse continues partnering with the Institute for Gender and Development Studies and ongoing studies in addressing the hypothesis that ethnicity is a significant determinant in the embry- onic response to changes in cellular environment and accounts in part for the variation in incidence and the development of NCDs. A group of researchers in collaboration with other departments is also actively involved in research into asthma and chronic obstruc- tive pulmonary disease. Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences The Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences offers several DM programmes comprising emergency medicine anesthesia and intensive care surgery obstetrics and gynecology ophthalmology in addition to others. All members of staff are actively involved in research within the department such as hypospadias carcinomas cholecystectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Lecturers are encour- aged to attend various regional and international conferences with the opportunity to present their work in these forums. School of Veterinary Medicine The School of Veterinary Medicine SVM undertakes various research activities that broadly aim to improve animal health and welfare and safeguard food supply in order to improve the quality of human life.Latelythe SVM spearheaded the One Health concept thus aligning the majority of research activities towards this global initiative. Driving this concept is an understanding of the interac- tions between animals wild and domestic the environment and humans as essentials in alleviating infectious diseases of both animals and humans. Noteworthy several synergistic research activities among SVM and the School of Medicine act to further promote this concept. Worthy of highlighting are relationships in animal models of some human diseases along with the use of animals as environmental sentinels unraveling the genetic links in bacteria that cause urinary tract infections or neonatal meningitis in humans with those carried by poultry research into vector-borne infections of humans and animals and research on livestock- associated infections of human MRSA. School of Nursing Research work centred on epidemiology public health and health promotion emanates from all schools and include studies on management of HIV-AIDS caregiver burden and dementia the health and socioeconomic position of the agedevaluation of health PROF. SHIVANANDA NAYAK DEPUT Y DEAN 157 monitoring protocols and development of parameter norms for the regional population. The School of Advanced Nursing Educa- tion has examined the customer services attributes of nursing in an attempt to improve customer satisfaction at health care facilities. Research includes studies on patients expectations and levels of satisfaction with nursing performance preparation of nursing students for effective clinical practice and teachers perception of school nurses in selected schools. School of Pharmacy The School of Pharmacy is actively involved in research on controlled-release preparations microsphere for arthritis Formu- lation development of oro-dispersible tablet of anti-diabetic drugs in-vitro quality control testing of different brands of NSAID tablets available in Trinidad Tobago Drug design and small molecule drug synthesis for antibacterial anti-tubercular and anti-cancer activity monitoring adverse drug reactions with the help of pharmacovigilance screening newer drugs for their anti- psychotic potential in the field of behavioural sciencesand charac- terization of the biological biomarkers effects of natural compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. School of Dentistry The dental school has been conducting research in the area of childrens oral health with respect to the prevalence of oral disease such as dental caries tooth decay both in school-age and preschool-age children. Community-based projects have enlight- ened the effectiveness of dental health education through engagement with parents and teachers and other stakeholders working in child health. On-going research is also investigating the need for orthodontic care among school children. The dental schools community-based research has also highlighted the need for prevention and management of tooth wear in the Caribbean adult population prevention and diagnosis of oral cancer and the relationship between non-communicable diseases and oral health. School of Optometry Optometry is a five-year old school and within this short period the facultys active research has progressed in studying the microbiol- ogy of unclean contact lens cases accommodation problems in the young diabetic retinopathy and enhanced screening refrac- tive error screening among our school children and improvements of guide dogs for blind diabetic patients. Much progress has been made and research continues as this faculty develops. 158 159 160 The role of glutamic acid receptors in protection against neurological diseases Nerves communicate with each other in the brain by releasing chemicals which move across a synapse the small space between two nerves. The chemical messengers within the synapse are known as neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid or glutamate is one of the twenty naturally occurring amino acids that are linked together in human cells to synthesize proteins for numerous biological processes.Currentlyglutamate is known to be one of the most common neurotransmitters found in the brain and spinal cord. Glutamic acid is used by nerves in the processing of sensations from the outside world e.g. vision hearing taste and smell skin sensations e.g. pain and touch and muscle movements e.g. walking running and skilled move- ments. Glutamic acid plays a major part in memory formation in different parts of the brain. Paradoxically glutamate is also involved in several neuro- logical and psychiatric disorders e.g. brain damage from motor vehicle accidents stroke epilepsy migraine headaches motor neuron disease Parkinsons disease Alzheimers disease schizo- phrenia and substance abuse. These neurological and psychiat- ric disorders are classified as chronic non-communicable diseases a topic that forms part of The UWIs Faculty of Medical Sciences research themes. The question that has intrigued me over the years and formed the basis of my research is How does a chemical that plays such crucial roles in several normal brain functions also be a major culprit in such a wide array of brain diseases Needless to indicate that given the wide range of actions of glutamate in physiological normal and pathological abnormal processes there are several laboratories worldwide that have been study- ing the actions of glutamate from different perspectives. When glutamate is released by a nerve it acts on four main types of proteins known as receptors to effect changes in other nerves. My research work which has been in very close collabo- ration with Trevor Stone of Glasgow University has focused on the actions and interactions between two of the glutamate receptors known as NMDA and AMPA. Whilst the beneficial effects of glutamate are mediated by both AMPA and NMDA separately or acting together the harmful effects of glutamate are mediated mainly via the NMDA receptors. Our research has shown that in the cerebral cortex nerves initiate steps that make them resistant to the effects of contin- ued activation of the NMDA receptor by glutamate. This finding indicates that there are intrinsic mechanisms that can protect nerves against the harmful effects of glutamate. We have recently found that the loss of sensitivity of NMDA receptors is dependent on the composition of the fluid that bathes nerves cells - known as the cerebrospinal fluid. Our current research work is attempting to determine the substances in the cerebro- spinal fluid that increase or decrease the degree of nerve damage. We anticipate that the results will have very useful application in the treatment of the many diseases caused by glutamate and listed above. Our research has also shown that mild stimulation of AMPA receptors by glutamate prevents the effects of subsequent stimulation of NMDA receptorswithout interfering with normal communication between nerves. The results of our work have demonstrated that although glutamate is both a friend and foe to nerves of the brain there are intrinsic brain mechanisms that protect nerves from the harmful effects of glutamate.Understanding these mechanisms is essential to controlling the harmful effects of glutamate without compromising its widespread essential normal functions in the brain and spinal cord. The alternative approach of blocking glutamate receptors has had limited success because such an approach has been accompanied by serious side effects from the simultaneous blocking of normal brain functions. Our research also examines how glutamate receptor activa- tion interacts with other neurotransmitters in the brain e.g. GABA and adenosineto increase its protective actionsand how the location of glutamate receptors on the nerve influences its physiological versus pathological effects. Currently we are examining how extracts of locally available foods e.g. curcu- min and plants e.g. jasmine and neem could protect a person against some of the diseases listed above by affecting the glutamate receptor. Physiological methods of pain relief There are neural networks in the brain especially the Periaque- ductal Grey Area or PAG that produce pain relief when stimu- lated. It is believed that the pain relief resulting from acupunc- ture may be activating this network.Korean Hand Therapy limits acupuncture skin stimulation to points on the hand to promote treatment of various illnesses. Our research has focused on MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Human Physiology Head Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences Tel 868 681 633 or 645 2645 ext. 4621 E-mail PROF. JONAS ADDAE 161 identifying new points on the hand that activate the PAG to produce pain relief. We have identified points which when stimulated by very very weak electrical current in the order of a few micro amps create very significant and almost immediate pain relief. The pain relief has been accompanied by reduction in inflammation of the affected part of the body. We have demonstrated pain relief for conditions such as migraine headache and various forms of joint and muscle injuriesdiseases. This area of research is producing a new direction in the understanding and management of pain without the use of tablets and injections and without any identifiable side effects. Selected Publications AddaeJ.I.and T.W.Stone.Quinolinate and related excitotoxins mechanisms of neurotoxicity and disease relevance.In Handbook of Neurotoxicity.EdR.MKostrzewa2013New YorkSpringer Science. AddaeJ.I.N.Ali and T.W.Stone.Effects of AMPA and clomethiazole on spreading depression cycles in the rat neocortex in vivo. European Journal of Pharmacology201165341-46. Addae J.I.and T.W.Stone.The serine protease subtilisin suppresses epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices and neocortex in vivo.Neuroscience 201119964-73 162 Professor Abiodun Adesiyun received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from Ahmadu Bello University A.B.U. in Nigeria. He went on to the University of Minnesota in the USA where he completed his Master of Public Health and PhD degrees. He returned to Ahmadu Bello University where he lectured for seven years 1981-1988 in Veterinary Public Health before leaving for Bonn where he served as Research Fellow at the University of Bonn Germany. Professor Adesiyun was appointed Senior Lecturer at The University of the West Indies in 1990. He was promoted to the rank of Reader in 1997 and received Professorial appointment in 1999. In the Faculty of Medical Sciences he served as Associate Dean for Research Deputy Dean Basic Health Sciences and acting Dean on several occasions and has held the position of DirectorSchool of Veteri- nary Medicine since November 2006. Professor Adesiyun has received several awards for his research and also won numerous research grants as principal or co-investigator from local regional and international sources. Some of the awards include 1999 Recipient of The University of the West Indies Vice Chancellors Award for Excellence in the area of Research 2000 Virginia Perry Fellow School of Veterinary Medicine University of CaliforniaDavisUSA. 2008 Selected as one of The UWIs 60 leading academics 60 under 60 as part of the 60th Anniversary Celebrations 2010 Recipient of the Caribbean Veterinary Medical Association award for Meritorious Service in Recognition of Contribu- tion to Veterinary Education and to the Development of the Veterinary Profession in the region 2012 Recipient as Team Leader of the Tropical Medicine Cluster Infectious Disease the award of the Best Research TeamEncouraging Multidisciplinary Research at the Inaugural Research Ceremony captioned Celebrating Excellence in Research The UWI St. Augustine Campus October 032012. Administration Professor Adesiyun served as Director of the School of Veterinary Medicine SVM from 2006 to 2014 and during that period he served on several faculty campus and university committees. During his tenure he led the successful efforts of the SVM to be accredited by the Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Medicine and Other Health Professions CAAM-HP from 2009 to 2015.He served as a member of the CAAM-HP Board from 2010 to 2014 and was also an observer on the American Veterinary Medical Association site visit team for the accreditation of the Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine programme from October 13-172014. Professor Adesiyun did not allow his administrative duties as Director 2006 2014 to hamper his research efforts as he published a total of 67 papers in peer-reviewed journals during that period. The major thrust of his research during this period has been a on brucellosis in water buffalo and this resulted in the gradua- tion of one PhD and two MPhil students and the publication of 18 papers and b on leptospirosis in dogs and livestock which has graduated one PhD student and yielded 15 publications with two MPhil students preparing their theses. He is particularly proud of the efforts and results obtained so far on the project on leptospirosis which he began in 2006. The investigations have confirmed that the vaccines developed from local isolates of Leptospira serovars Copenhageni and Mankarso demon- strated significantly better efficacy in hamsters in protecting vaccinated dogs challenged with virulent strains than the commercial vaccines used in Trinidad and Tobago. He is happy that the long-sustained efforts on the project have now confirmed the findings in hamsters and in Beagle dogs. He is looking forward to the next phase of the study which should result in the mass production of the vaccine for use in dogs in this country and in the region at large. Professor Abiodun Adesiyun proceeded on a 3-month study leave July to September 2014 to Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine TUSVM Tuskegee USA and thereafter accepted the appointment as Visiting Extra-ordinary Professor at the University of PretoriaSouth Africa during his sabbatical leave October 2014 to September 2015. At TUSVMhe collaborated with researchers in projects in the area of food safety and continues to assist in the supervision of two MS and two PhD students. He also assisted in developing a research proposal entitled Partnering with the poultry industry in Alabama on food safety which is a comprehensive farm to fork approach with the potential to attract several graduate students. MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Veterinary Public Health Director School of Veterinary Medicine Tel 868 777 7480 E-mail PROF. ABIODUN ADESIYUN 163 At the University of Pretoria Professor Adesiyun is very excited about the research-oriented atmosphere and the institutions commitment to community engagement a strength recognized globally.He is committed to bringing his experience back to benefit The UWI St.Augustine Campus on his return from sabbatical leave. Professor Adesiyun mentions some of the projects that he is spear-heading and collaborating with local researchers at Univer- sity of Pretoria including the molecular characterization of Leptospira in rodents dogs and dog owners in Mnisi area Mpumalanga Province. The area is located next to the Kruger National Parkthe largest game park in South Africa where there is extensive interface between domestic and wild animals.A second project is on cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on enteric infections bacteriaviruses and parasites responsible for morbid- ity and mortality in neonatal livestock in three provinces GautengNorth West and Mpumalanga.The primary objective of the study is to identify the important aetiological agents and to conduct molecular studies to characterize them. He is also consulting on a project on antimicrobial residues in table eggs and commenced a pilot study in Gauteng Province with the hope of using the data generated from the study to develop a national policy on the food safety aspects of table eggs sold through the formal and informal markets in the country.A number of graduate students three PhD and four MSc have already registered and engaged in these projects. According to Professor Adesiyun So far it has been an exciting and rewarding experience for me in South Africa and I look forward to annual short visits to follow-up on these projects and the progress made by the graduate studentswhich his appointment as visiting Extra-ordinary Profes- sor will facilitate. Overall Research Outputs Publications in peer-reviewed journals 1981-2015197 Peer-reviewed conference proceedings9 Conference papers localregional and international71 Selected Publications Suepaul S. C.C. Carrington M. Campbell G. Borde and A.A. Adesiyun A. A. Serovars of Leptospira isolated from dogs and rodents.Epidemiology and Infection20101381059-1070. Suepaul S. C.C. Carrington M. Campbell G. Borde and A.A. AdesiyunA.A. 2010.Study on the efficacy of Leptospira vaccines developed from serovars isolated from Trinidad and comparison with commercial vaccines using a hamster model. Vaccine 2010 285421-5426. Adesiyun A.A. S. Baboolal S. Suepaul S. Dookeran and A.Stewart-JohnsonHuman leptospirosis in the Caribbean region 1997-2005characteristics and serotyping of clinical samples from 14 countries. Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2011 9 350- 357. 164 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Veterinary Anatomy Head Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 4205 E-mail PROF. ANDREW ADOGWA My main research areas are anatomy gross and microscopic neuroanatomy neuropathology and congenital malformations. I have tried to tailor my research to the local environment. I have collaborated with colleagues in the Faculty of Food and Agricul- ture and with colleagues in the School of Human Medicine Faculty of Medical Sciences. Many postgraduate students Masters and PhD helped with aspects of the research. My research in neuroanatomy is ongoing and involves mainly studies on brainstem nuclei of various species of animals especially the extrapyramidal systems of the locomotor system. This has led to my involvement in research in neurodegenerative diseases especially in swayback disease in Trinidad. Swayback disease occurs in lambs and kids in which it causes neurodegen- erative changes in various parts of the brain but most pronounced changes occur in the extrapyramidal system. We were able to confirm for the first time the existence of swayback in Trinidad on the basis of the neurodegenerative changes in the brains of the animals involved. This disease is caused by copper deficiency. We were able to show perhaps for the first time that helminths play a role in copper deficiency that ultimately results in swayback disease. From our research it became clear that antihelminth resistance might occur in Trinidad because animals that were supposed to have been dewormed were producing swayback lambs and kids. Following from these studies it has now been confirmed that there is antihelminth resistance in Trinidad. My recent research in this area has been on the neuro- anatomy of the brainstem of the echolocating bats with empha- sis on the brainstem nuclei of the auditory pathway. These bats have a very acute sense of hearing. The studies on the brainstem of these bats are ongoing but our results so far have shown major differences in the cytoarchitecture of these bats compared to the non-echolocating bats. Trinidad has a rich variety of bat species. My main preoccupation in recent years has been in the study of the anatomy of wildlife in the region. This is ongoing and involves several postgraduate students. These studies are impor- tant as wildlife farming is on the increase and information on the anatomy will help with production of these species of animals in captivity.The information may be useful to veterinarians who will be called upon to treat these animals. The studies have involved the digestive and reproductive organs mainly. The agouti is the species most exhaustively studied. Other species like the opossum are also being studied. An example of how vital simple information may be is the fact that the agouti a rodent lacks sweat glands. Because of this agouti in the wild are more active in the night when it is cooler. When in captivity the agouti may be exposed to heat stress with consequent reduction in libido and reproductive performance.Our work in this species has been the most authoritative on the male and female reproductive systems of these animals.Extensive work has been carried out on the anatomy of the male reproductive system of the agouti including gross and histological studies semen evaluation and storage ejaculation and accessory sex organs. Similar studies on the female reproductive system which include gross and histological studies and hormonal studieshave provided us with useful information on how best to breed the agouti in captivity. These studies are being extended to other wildlife species. The results of these studies will impact on the production of these species in captivity and consequently on meeting the protein needs of the region. Another area of interest is congenital malformations. Congenital malformations in animals mirror environmental contamination. Some of them are sporadic but when they occur in large numbers in certain areasthey may indicate environmen- tal contamination. I have collected and studied congenital malformations in animals from various parts of Trinidad. This research is ongoing. Lungs of a cow 165 166 Professor Patrick Akpaka was born in Nigeria and graduated from the University of Nigeria Nsukka Medical College 1990 and completed his residency programme at The UWI Mona Campus DM 2004. He has had further postgraduate training in the UK USA and Canada. He joined the academic staff of the Paraclinical Sciences Department of the St.Augustine Campus of The Univer- sity of the West Indies in 2005as a temporary full-time lecturer in Microbiology. Dr. Akpaka established his research abilities here at the St. Augustine campus of The UWI with bias in the area of molecular epidemiology diagnosis and characterization of multi-drug resistant microbial agents associated with infections that are of public health interest including their antibiotic-resistance profiles.His research work has had impacts on clinical and labora- tory diagnosis as well as in scientific knowledge. He pioneered several research projects in the department that have investigated the molecular epidemiology of several bacterial organisms including Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to mention but a few.Most of the work done on the above organisms by Dr. Akpaka are published in highly reputable regional and international journals that have high impact factors. His research work which detected multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa that acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases KPC gene that led to a fatal case of a native Trinidad Tobago national was the third such discovery in the whole world. This work was not only presented at the Inter- Science Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ICAAC in 2008 in the USA but was also published in one of the worlds leading journals in MicrobiologyJournal of Clinical Micro- biology JCM 2009 4782670-1. Professor Akpakas work on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the country has shed more light and information about the clonal spread of this organism and patterns of infections it causes in the country and the region. The work has been published in International Journal of Infectious Diseases and European Journal of Clinical Microbiology Int J Infect Dis 2007 11544 548 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 317 1497-500 respectively. These research works have delineated how these organisms spread from one hospital to another or how they circulate in the country even tracing their origin outside the country to other regions which is reported in the Journal of Travel Medicine Journal of Travel Medicine 2013 20283-288. One of Professors Akpaka studies identified the Panton Valentine Leococidin PVL toxin gene in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus that caused the demise of a 13 year old Trinidadian boy and this is reported in Journal of Medical Case Report Biomed Central Journals J Med Case Report Biomed Central 201151157.It revealed how clinically this could occur. The publication of this report has made clinicians aware of such cases. This work has also led to the development of a rapid detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus cultures by monoclonal antibodies using a lateral flow assay by Alere Technologies Germany and USA. This again was published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JCM 2013 2487-95. These publications have heightened the need and urgency to put in place molecular diagnostic facilities not only in the department and regional hospitals in Trinidad Tobago but also worldwide. This work has a very strong clinical and labora- tory diagnosis impact or significance. Dr. Akpakas work in collaboration with other researchers from Germany United Kingdom Australia Ireland France Malta Hong Kong has contributed greatly to the characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA resulting in a field guide to the nature of this organism producing pandemic epidemic and sporadic clones. This work was published in the PloS ONE journals PLoS ONE 2011 64 e17936. This particular work has had over 250 citations in leading journals demonstrat- ing its strong research and scientific impact. In the area of organisms that have public health impor- tance in terms of acquisiton and spread Dr. Akpakas work has had a high research and scientific knowledge impact. His work has not only highlighted a rapid method of detection of resist- ance to isoniazid and rifampicin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected in the Caribbean but has also given a first insight into Mycobacterium tuberculosis epidemiology and genetic diversity in Trinidad and Tobago as published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology JCM 2008 46 103426-3428 and JCM 2009 4761911-4 respectively. Dr. Akpakas work on this organism of public health importance has also led to obtaining a first assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity and drug-resistance patterns in twelve Carib- bean territories published in Biomed Research International Biomed Res Int. 20142014718496. doi 10.11552014718496. His work has also resulted in the finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs revealing phylogeographical specificities of MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Medical Microbiology Department of Para-Clinical Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 2332 E-mail PROF. PATRICK AKPAKA 167 isolates circulating in Guyana and Suriname this is published in Journal of Infections Genetics and Evolution Infect Genet Evol. 201530114-9. doi 10.1016 He has collaborated in his research with leading experts from other institutions from the USA Canada Germany France Australia England Ireland and Colombia. He contributed a chapter to an open access book on tuberculosis and molecular diagnostic work that has attracted more than 1500 downloads online in less than three months of the publication Under- standing Tuberculosis - Global Experiences and Innovative Approaches to the Diagnosis Pere-Joan Cardona Ed.. InTech - Open Access Publishers. ISBN 978-953-307-938-7. 1500 down- loads from of this chapter from Under- standing Tuberculosis. Professor Akpaka is currently working with his team on the research titled Surveillance characterization and management of antibiotic resistance in common bacterial pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago.In this work the molecular characterization and profiling of isolates through contemporary nucleic acid- based molecular techniques rDNA sequencing PFGE MLSTA and VNTR analyses will be determined. Also molecular charac- terization of antibiotic resistance through sequence profiling of resistance and marker genes will be determined. There will also be a development of high-throughput nucleic acid DNARNA - based diagnostic PCR multiplex-PCR and Real-time PCR proce- dures from pathogen cultures and directly from clinical samples. There are also several other research projects that he is engaged in with his postgraduate students. 168 My pioneering research project on calcium in pregnancy led to a significant finding that calcium supplementation in pregnancy prevents pre-eclampsiaeclampsia which is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world. Furthermore calcium was found to be superior to low-dose aspirin as prophy- laxis against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Since this research which resulted in much wider administration of calcium to pregnant womenthere has been a marked decline in maternal deaths from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Trinidad and Tobago. This research culminated in the award of the Master of Philosophy MPhil in Obstetrics and Gynaecology by The University of the West Indies.The findings of this research are documented as part of a thesis as well as a publication in the peer-reviewed journal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology UK. It is noteworthy that the reviewer of that article Professor Michael de Sweit a leading authority in Medical Disorders of Pregnancy commented that this research was the first documented study which compared calcium and low-dose aspirin as prophylaxis against pre-eclampsiaeclampsia. I continue to lead the research agenda in The University of the West Indies in the field of Maternal Disorders of Pregnancy. The Caribbean is plagued with one of the highest incidence of diabetes mellitus in the world. As evident elsewhere we are also experiencing an epidemic of obesity in our population which is a precursor for diabetes mellitus. Similarly the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus GDM a predisposing factor for diabetes mellitus type 2is also common in our population. Prior to my research on GDM screening for this condition in Trinidad and Tobago was primarily via testing for glycosuria although it is recognised that glycosuria is not a reliable screening tool with a low sensitivity and specificity for GDM. I have demonstrated that use of a lime-flavoured glucose drink is a suitable and effective method for screening for GDM.The addition of the lime juice makes the glucose drink much more palatable especially in pregnancy where many women experience nausea and vomit- ing which may be worsened by a highly concentrated glucose drink. We noted that these gastrointestinal upsets were eliminated with the addition of the lime juice to the glucose drink. I remain a firm advocate for universal screening for GDM in the Caribbean.With the introduction of universal screening over selective screening based on risk factors we have shown that selective screening misses as much as 50 of cases. We have already noted a much better outcome in pregnancy compli- cated by GDM with universal screening with the lime-flavoured glucose drink and early treatment.One such outcome is the fall in perinatal mortality from GDM from about 200 to less than 50 per 1000 total such births at the Mt. Hope Maternity Hospital since this research. Currently my postgraduate trainees and I are conducting a prospective study on the optimal time of delivery for women in their forties a condition that is well-recognised as high-risk in terms of outcome for both mothers and their offspring. A rising trend of pregnancy among women in the latter part of their reproductive age has been observed in Trinidad and Tobago. This trend is also evident internationally. We are also studying the outcome among 900 pregnant women with gestational diabetes who were treated with insulin andor oral hypoglycae- mic agents. We hope that the findings of this study may be instructive in assisting us to determine the best option to achieve glycaemic control among gestational diabetics. My research agenda also includes uterine fibroids which are the most common gynaecological tumours. These tumours are said to occur in 50-80 of Caucasian women and are even more common in West Indian women. We have been studying approaches to minimise intra-operative haemorrhage during myomectomy surgical removal of fibroids. This procedure is associated with severe blood loss and sometimes the only recourse to save the womens life is hysterectomy.My recent work in the field showed that the 3-month course of GnRH analogue was only effective in reducing associated blood loss in myomec- tomy for small 169 Medicine DM Examinations in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at The University of the West Indies from 2010. Recently a commit- tee comprising senior academic staff in Obstetrics and Gynae- cology of the four UWI campuses met in Miami to plan the inaugural new style DM examinations for NovemberDecember 2014. I have always been inspired by researchparticularly in high- risk obstetrics. Consequently I have many publications in well- recognised medical journals on areas such as diabetes pre- eclampsia and perinatal outcome. Although research continues to enthuse me being part of a small full-time faculty with a low faculty to student ratioI have also dedicated myself to providing the best possible standard of teaching and training to both undergraduates and postgraduates. I have received formal training and certification in medical education and I have also defined our UWI curriculum for both the first and second parts of the DM in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. My work has impacted positively on the lives of pregnant women in this region and elsewhere. The findings of my research have contributed to making pregnancy safer in this country. I am requested to review manuscripts for peer-reviewed journals some of which carry high impact factor on a regular basis. Among these journals are the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology which is the official journal of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists RCOG UK and Medical Teacher which is one of the best journals in medical education. I am currently conducting a peer review of one of the upcoming Green Topguidelines for the RCOG. I am the sole International editor for the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology UK from Central America and the Caribbean. I have also forged close ties with other organizations such as the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics FIGO Imperial College Guys and St Thomas Hospitals London and the University of Dundee. In addition I am involved in the establish- ment of the special multidisciplinary cardiac clinic for pregnant women at Mt. Hope Maternity Hospital in collaboration with Chelsea and Westminster HospitalLondon.This clinic has a strong research component. Selected Publications Bassaw B. S. Roopnarinesingh A. Roopnarinesingh and H. Homer. Prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Obstet.Gynaecol.199818123-126. Bassaw B. A. Khan M. Ramjohn V. Ramoutar and L. Bassawh. Pregnancy outcome in early-onset severe pre-eclampsia in Trinidad.Int.J.Gynecol.Obstet201211678-80. Bassaw B. N. Mohammed S. Ramsewak L. Bassawh A. Khan M. Bhola and A.Chekuri.Pregnancy outcome among women univer- sally screened for gestational diabetes mellitus with a lime- flavoured drink.J.Obstet.Gynaecol.201232422-425. 170 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Veterinary Parasitology Head Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences School of Veterinary Medicine Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 4239 E-mail PROF. ASOKE BASU Professor Asoke Basu started his research career in 1978 working on different ectoparasites including tsetse flies ticks lice mites and nasal bot flies.Professor Basu also worked with endoparasites mainly gastrointestinal helminths and blood parasites Trypanosoma of animals while working under the Animal Resources Development in India University of Maiduguri Nigeria and Addis Ababa UniversityEthiopia.He joined the FMS-SVMUWI in November 2008. Important Research in The UWI Trinidad is a tropical Caribbean island where small ruminant farms are semi-intensively managed. These tropical conditions support the development and survival of the infective stages of intestinal helminths. As a result local farmers use anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes regularly. Frequent use of anthelmintics has the potential to select for populations of nema- todes resistant to these chemicals. Prof. Basu and his co- researchers have worked on the anthelmintic susceptibility of parasitic helminths to different drugs detected by Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test in vivo with Egg per Gram recorded at post-treatment. This revealed reduced efficacy of albendazole fenbendazole and levamisol compared to ivermectin on intestinal parasites of sheep. The observations indicated the development of drug-resistance in the parasites against the anthelmintics used in Trinidad for more than three decades. This is the first report of multiple drug resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Trinidad. Ticks blood-sucking obligatory ectoparasites are of immense importance causing anaemia restlessness loss of condition decrease in milk production and tick-paralysis in host animals. They are also considered to be second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human infectious disease in the world. They are also known to transmit numerous arboviruses bacteria and protists. Prof Basu has overviewed the literatures on ticks found on humans and animals in Trinidad and Tobago from 1899 to 2011. Hitherto 896 valid species of ticks have been reported throughout the world but so far only 23 tick species belonging to seven genera have been recorded in Trinidad and Tobago. The growing signifi- cance of ticks in the medical and veterinary field emphasizes the need for further studies on the ecology of ticks and the epidemiol- ogy of tick-borne diseases in the Caribbean region. Platynosomum fastosum is a small hepatic trematode found in the biliary ducts and gall bladder of cats and other mammals. It is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions. Prof Basu identified and reported the presence of P.fastosum in a cat which has been recorded as the first report from Trinidad and Tobago.He also worked along with Dr R. Charles to review the prevalence location in hosts description history life cycle clinical signs pathology diagnostic methods and treatment of this parasite covering the literatures from 1901 to 2013. Giardia is a widespread parasite associated with gastrointesti- nal disease of humans wildlife livestock and companion animals. Along with Prof. Basu Miguella Mark-Carew a PhD scholar of Cornell University USA studied the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. Assem- blages CD and E of G.duodenalis from dog feaces were identified. Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G.duode- nalis than adult dogs. Although the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population.This study was the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. Currently Prof. Basu along with Dr. Charles is in the process of gleaning base-line data on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic ruminants and canids in Trinidad. These domestic animals are known to be reservoirs of parasite species that can adversely affect humans and other animals.Knowledge of the parasites present in these domestic species will increase the awareness of veterinarians and petlivestock owners in the proper treatmentmanagement of infected animals and thus a healthier animal and human population on the island. Selected Publications George N. K. Persad R. Sagam V.N. Offiah A.A. Adesiyun W. Harewood N. Lambie and A.K. Basu. Efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics First report of multiple drug resistance in gastroin- testinal nematodes of sheep in Trinidad. Veterinary Parasitology 2011183194 197. Basu A.K. M. Basu and A.A. Adesiyun. A review on ticks Acari Ixodoidea Ixodidae Argasidae associated pathogens and diseases of Trinidad and Tobago.Acarologia201252139-50. Mark-Carew M.P. A.A. Adesiyun A.K. Basu K.A. Georges T. Pierre S. Tilitz S.E. Wade and H.O. Mohammed. Characterization of Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. Veterinary Parasitology2013196199-202. 171 172 People laugh when I say it but I really do love viruses. They fascinate me. The contrast between their structural simplicity and the complex interactions they have with the cells they infect as well as the sometimes drastic consequences on the infected host will never cease to amaze me. I am not noted for being a patient personso the fact that viruses evolve quickly also suits me.We can track and observe how they adapt to their environment in real- time. And there is such diversity among viruses that I dont have to worry about running out of things to learn. My research focuses mainly on viruses that are associated with emerging infectious diseases EIDs.An EID is an infectious disease that has newly appeared in a population or that may have previously existed but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range.Well-known and topical examples include HIV- AIDS dengue chikungunya fever ebola virus disease avian and H1N1 influenza. About 75 of recent EIDs in humans and 60 of all human pathogens are diseases of animal origin.Im particularly interested in the mechanisms by which these viruses gain the ability to affect human populations and in some cases go on to have a major impact. We know that emergence requires that the causative agent is introduced into a vulnerable human population has the ability to spread from person-to-person and can be maintained in the population so that new infections continue to occur. In some cases this is achieved via genetic changes in the pathogen that increase its transmissibility host range and virulencebut very often it is a direct consequence of environmen- taldemographic and societal changes e.g.urbanisationalteration of natural habitats and rapid global travel that increase the probability of susceptible individuals coming into contact with infected hosts or vectors. My research groups current focus is vector-borne viruses such as the dengue viruses Chikungunya virus and other mosquito- borne viruses as well as rabies and other viruses carried by bats.We are trying to answer questions such as - What evolutionary and ecological factors determine viral emergence - What are the patterns of geographic spread demonstrated by emerging viruses in the Americas and what factors influence these patterns - How and where are viruses maintained between epidemics Is there regular reintroduction from other geographic regions or are they maintained locally at low levels - What are the animal reservoirs for current emerging viral diseases - What is the level of viral diversity in animal species that are likely sources of emerging viruses e.g. mosquitoes blood- sucking arthropods and bats Our general approach involves sampling viruses from the infected hosts or vectors sequencing their genomes and using state-of-the-art phylogenetic and bioinformatic techniques to estimate evolutionary relationships among viruses the rates at which they evolve and the forces driving their evolution the dates when individual viruses or specific lineages of a given virus arose how viral population sizes or levels of genetic diversity have changed over time their patterns of geographic spread spatial diffusion and to identify factors that determine and thus might be used to predict patterns of epidemic growth and spread. The beauty of this approach is that it relies on historical information contained in viral genomic sequences rather than epidemiological records to illuminate viral epidemic history.It can therefore recover information on virus transmission that occurred before systematic epidemiological surveillance was initiated.This is a very important consideration in developing countries given the deficiencies of public health infrastructure that frustrate the collec- tion of accurate and timely data through traditional surveillance mechanisms. To date we have completed investigations on the evolution and spread of dengue virus yellow fever and rabies viruses in the Americas. We have also characterised several viruses isolated during our extensive mosquito surveillance in forested regions of Trinidad some of which were previously unknown. This mosquito surveillance work provided updated information on viruses in circulation in Trinidad and their mosquito vectors. We are now focusing on dengue chikungunya and other viruses associated with febrile illnesses in patients presenting at selected healthcare institutions in Trinidad. In addition to providing greater insight into the evolution of these virusesthe level of viral diversity that exists in our region and the factors that shape this diversityour work results in estimates of how quickly specific virus populations are growingreconstruction of virus migration histories and identification of epidemiologically linked countries. In the case of dengue viruses we noted a high degree of virus movement within the Caribbean region and found that the intensity of viral traffic between countries was related to strength of economic and cultural ties between these countries. There was greater movement of virus amongst Caribbean Community CARICOM member countries than between CARICOM members and non-members. Our more recent MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Molecular Genetics and Virology Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 4634 E-mail PROF. CHRISTINE V. F. CARRINGTON investigations demonstrate the important role of air traffic and also suggest that dengue geographic spread in the Americas is best described by a gravity model where larger more densely populated regions attract viruses from smaller less densely populated regions. Research findings suggest that efforts to understand dengue disease dynamics in the Caribbean need to focus at regionalrather than local scales and justify the roles of bodies like the Caribbean Public Health Agency CARPHA and the Pan American Health Organisation through which regional and country-based organi- zations co-ordinate their monitoring and control efforts. In contrast to the dengue viruses for yellow fever virus we noted significantly less viral traffic and strong evidence for in-situ maintenance of viruses between outbreaks. Our analyses confirmed that although there is occasional importation of yellow fever virus to Trinidad from the South American mainlandthe virus is maintained locally in Trinidad for relatively long periods.Further work is required to confirm the mechanism of yellow fever virus maintenance between outbreaks in order to fully understand the ecological factors influencing emergence and spread.Similarly for rabies virus we found evidence of at least three importations of the virus from the mainland within the last 40 years. We are now investigating the role of vampire bat movement between Trinidad and the mainland in rabies virus spread. One of my more recent interests is in using a metagenomics approach to define the viromesi.e.the genomes of all the viruses that inhabit a particular organismenvironment of species that are likely sources of potentially emergent viruses e.g. bats. Using a conventional PCR-based screening approach my group in collaboration with researchers in Hong Kong identified novel coronaviruses in Trinidad bats. I am also interested in host genetic factors that determine susceptibilityresistance to diseases in humans and have performed studies determining and comparing immune response gene in Trinidadians of African South Asian and Mixed descent. The results constitute baseline data for association studies for diseases such as dengue where the immune response is implicated in determining disease severity. The data also contrib- uted to studies led by Dr.Paul Norman at Stanford into the evolu- tion of specific immune response gene families. Im also currently involved in a study that seeks to determine genetic factors involved in eye disease. I have also been involved as a collaborator in studies that investigated non-viral infections. For example regarding the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of leptospirosis and malaria in Trinidad and Guyana respectively. The leptospirosis work led by Prof. A. Adesiyun also studied the efficacy of killed whole-cell vaccines developed from serovars isolated from Trinidad and compared with commercial vaccines using a hamster model. The results indicated better protection against circulating serovars using the in-house vaccine than with two commercial vaccines commonly used in Trinidad. Selected Publications CarringtonC.V.F.J.E.FosterO.G.PybusS.N.Bennett and E.C.Holmes. The invasion and maintenance of dengue virus type 2 and type 4 in the Americas.Journal of Virology2005792314680-14687. Allicock O.M P. Lemey A.J. Tatem O.G. Pybus S.N. Bennett B.A. MuellerM.A.SuchardJ.E.FosterA.Rambaut and C.V.F.Carrington. 173 Phylogeography and population dynamics of dengue viruses in the Americas. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2012 29 6 1533- 1543. Seetahal J.F. A. Velasco-Villa O.M. Allicock A.A. Adesiyun J. Bisses- sarK.AmourA.Phillip-HoseinD.A.MarstonL.M.McElhinneyM.Shi C.A.WharwoodA.R.Fooks and C.V.Carrington.Evolutionary history and phylogeography of rabies viruses associated with outbreaks in Trinidad.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases20132278.e2365. Website addresses for recent research projects Research gate profile httpwww.researchgate.netprofileChristine_Carrington2 Tropical Medicine ClusterInfectious Diseases.Member Profile httpsta.uwi.edutropicalmedicineccarrington.asp 60 under 60.Pelican Magazine Issue 5. httpssta.uwi.edupelican60under60ccarrington.asp Caribbean icons in sciencetechnology and innovation. carrington.html 174 Biography and research experience Professor Francis Dziva is a member of the Royal College of Veteri- nary Surgeons UK with specialist training MSc and PhD in micro- biology. His research spanned nearly all key areas of veterinary bacteriology among them unravelling bacterial and host factors that influence the outcome of infection.Research on bacteria-host interactions contributed the majority of his research output in the UK where he was a principal investigator prior to joining The University of the West Indies. These studies focussed on food- producing ruminants and employed multidisciplinary approaches ranging from molecular tools cellular immunological and whole animal approaches. Mechanisms of Shiga toxin- producing ESCHERICHIA COLI STEC O157H7 persistence in cattle Whilst apparently healthy ruminants are important sources of food meat and milk they can carry one of the deadliest bacterium Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157H7 in their intestines without suffering or showing any symptoms. This organism can cause so-called attaching and effacing lesions in the intestine which is characterised by tightly attached bacteria sitting on a raised pedestal as shown above. Of greater significance is that this bacterium can multiply to several millions in the intestines of cattle and become intermittently shed in faeces increasing the chances of contaminating our food meat milk fruit and vegeta- bles water and the environment. Therefore direct or indirect contact with ruminant faeces is the leading antecedent to human infections. A serious concern is that only 100 bacterial cells are enough to cause acute disease in humans. Although cattle can harmlessly carry millions of this organism in the intestines the story is not the same when the bacterium transfers to humans.The disease in humans manifests as acute gastroenteritis haemor- rhagic colitis that may be complicated by life-threatening kidney disease haemolytic uremic syndrome HUS in those with weak immunity the youngelderly and the immunocompromised.HUS is characterised by acute kidney failure haemolytic anaemia and depleted blood clotting factors platelets. In rare cases severe neurological complications may occur. To understand how E. coli O157H7 persists in cattle Professor Dzivas work involved a combination of genetic tools to create 3000 random mutants mutant bank or library each containing a unique DNA sequence called a signature tag. The mutants were arrayed in micro-titre plates and fed in pools of 95 to cattle held in a high level of biosafety containment.Mutants defective in intesti- nal colonization were allowed to be shed in faeces within four days. At five days faeces were collected and bacterial mutants representative of those that were initially fed were collected in sufficient numbers. By comparing the composition of what was fed input and what came out in faeces output defective mutants were identified and the site of the signature tag within the genome was identified. This led to the first comprehensive portfolio of E.coli O157H7 genes required for persistence in cattle. Targeted mutations were constructed in individual genes to confirm their phenotypes in the target host by analysing their colonization patterns compared with the parent strain. It is clear that cattle are a key control point for E. coli O157H7 infections in humans. Intervention strategies that reduce pre-harvest carriage by cattle are also expected to lead to the lowering of the incidence of disease in humans. Subsequently recombinant vaccines based on identified genes with attenuating effect were tested for their ability to reduce carriage of this bacterium in cattle. These were not protective despite inducing strong antibody responses. However it was later shown by a Canadian group that it is the native rather than the recombinant proteins that lead to reduced carriage of E.coli O157H7 in cattlepaving the way to the first vaccine against this bacterium. Thus my studies were a fore- runner to the first commercial vaccine of E.coli O157H7. Work in this area has been extended to Trinidad by first determining the prevalence of this organism or related strains carrying Shiga toxin genes in cattle sheep and goats. Prof Dzivas graduate student has shown that Shiga toxin-producing E.coli are present in the dairy cattle herds as well as sheep and goats the strains are different from the classical E. coli O157H7 but are similar to those often seen in Australia. Ongoing work aims to determine the full repertoire of key virulence genes associated with disease in humans and their genetic relationship to other sequenced strains. Mechanisms of avian pathogenic ESCHERICHIA COLI APEC virulence in poultry and prospects for control Extending the same genetic approaches to a related organism avian pathogenic Escherichia coli APEC that causes a recalcitrant infection in poultry Professor Dziva has identified numerous genes that are now targets for developing live-attenuated vaccines of this key endemic disease. APEC causes a severe systemic disease in farmed poultry and is a disease of economic MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor in Veterinary Bacteriology Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 4219 E-mail PROF. FRANCIS DZIVA 175 significance to poultry producers worldwide. More worrisome is the recent data indicating a close relationship of such strains with those that cause urinary tract infections UTIsneonatal meningi- tis and sepsis in humans. Controlling the organism in poultry is likely to lessen the potential zoonotic threat and above all will safeguard the food supply and personnel safety. Although commercial vaccines against APEC are available their efficacy is often limited and serotype specific in the presence of multiple serotypes associated with this disease.As suchthere is a pressing need for broadly cross-protective vaccines especially at this time of increased prevalence of APEC infections directly arising from changes in poultry production practices. To provide the basis of assessing the efficacy of new vaccine candidatesProfessor Dzivas studies initially targeted the understanding of how currently licensed commercial vaccines which confer limited protection work through dissecting the immunological basis of such protec- tion.Such information is essential for designing newor for ration- ally improvingexisting vaccines for the control of APEC infections in poultry. Through a UWI Campus and Researchfunded project Prof Dzivas graduate student has recently shown that avian pathogenic E. coli is among the bacterial pathogens that are threatening duck productivity in Trinidad. Future work entails designing intervention strategies to reduce the incidences of such infections. Selected Publications Dziva F. P.M. van Diemen M.P. Stevens A.J. Smith and T.S. Wallis. Identification of Escherichia coli O157H7 genes influencing coloni- sation of the bovine gastrointestinal tract using signature-tagged mutagenesis.Microbiology20041503631-3645. Dziva F. H. Hauser T.R. Connor P.M. van Diemen G. Prescott G.C. Langridge S. Eckert R.R. Chaudhuri et al. Sequencing and functional annotation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroup O78 strains reveal the evolution of E. coli lineages pathogenic for poultry via distinct mechanisms. Infection and Immunity 201381838-849. SadeyenJ.R. Z. Wu H. Davies P.M. van Diemen A. Milicic R.M. La Ragione P. Kaiser M.P. Stevens and F. Dziva. Immune responses associated with homologous protection conferred by commercial vaccines for control of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in turkeys. Veterinary Research20154651-14. 176 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Chemical Pathology Department of Para-Clinical Sciences Tel 868 620 9708663 6668 Fax 868 663 9737 E-mails Website PROF. CHIDUM E. EZENWAKA My research interest is diabetes mellitus. My contributions to scientific knowledge in diabetes have largely been documented and disseminated through publications in reputable scientific journals and presentations at learned scientific conferences.These contributions could be summarized under three specific areas Causes of diabetes My laboratory has provided scientific evidence through studies on Nigerian and Trinidadian offspring of diabetic patients that first-degree relatives of persons living with type 2 diabetes have increased risk of developing diabetes in later life. Diabetes prevention We have documented in scientific literature that lifestyle modifica- tion through exercise and dietary counselling in Caribbean offspring of type 2 diabetic patients reduced their risk of develop- ing diabetes over a five-year follow-up period. Prevention of diabetes complications My laboratory has through several research studies identified poor blood glucose control and obesity especially abdominal obesity as two major cardiovascular or metabolic syndrome risk factors amongst diabetic patients in Trinidad and Tobago. We also observed that one of the causes of the reported poor blood glucose control was poor local dietary education or prescription. Diabetes Self-management Education DSME My laboratory has shown that self-monitoring of blood glucose in type-2 diabetic patients significantly improved their blood glucose control and coronary heart disease risk profile which suggests that type-2 diabetic patients will potentially benefit from inclusion of glucose meters and test-strips in their health-care package. Our survey studies have shown that the majority of diabetes patients believe that self-monitoring of blood glucose is beneficial in the management of their diabetes. We subsequently conducted a survey of the opinion of nurses and dietitians regarding diabetes self-management education in Trinidad and Tobago. Although the nurses and dietitians agreed that diabetes self-management education assists to reduce diabetes complications they identified inadequate healthcare personnel economic resources and educational facilities as significant barriers in the Caribbean population. In an effort to address the findings of our survey my research group collaborated with The UWI School of Nursing in 2014 in organizing a workshop that trained nurse practitioners on diabe- tes self-management education. Selected Publications EzenwakaC.E.O.OkoyeC.EsonwuneP.OnuohaC.DiokaC.Osuji C. Oguejiofor and C. Meludu. High prevalence of abdominal obesity increases the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Nigerian type 2 diabetes patients using the IDF world-wide definition. Metabolic Syndrome Related Disorders2014125277-282. EzenwakaC.E.O.OkoyeC.EsonwuneC.DiokaP.OnuohaC.Osuji C. Oguejiofor and C. Meludu. Is diabetes patients knowledge of laboratory tests for monitoring blood glucose levels associated with better glycaemic control Archives of Physiology Biochemis- try 20141202086-90 DOI10.310913813455.2014.8841402014. EzenwakaC.P.OnuohaD.Sandy and D.Isreal-Richardson.Diabetes self-management education in a high-income developing country survey of the opinion of nurses and dietitians. In. J. Diabetes Dev. Countries published online 20 December 2013 DOI 10.1007s13410-013-0174-72013S Hospital patient having blood pressure tested 177 178 179 180 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Psychiatry Psychiatry Unit Department of Clinical Medical Sciences Tel 868 662 3968 E-mail PROF. GERARD HUTCHINSON The period has been marked research wise by a collaborative project with the Institute of Psychiatry University of Ibadan Nigeria and the Schizophrenia Research Foundation SCARF Institute in Chennai India funded by the Wellcome Trust. The project is called Intrepid and attempts to map and describe psychotic illness in the three countries India Nigeria and Trinidad.It also sought to establish how the provision of services both medical and spiritual influences help-seeking for psychotic illness. Psychosis is the most serious and obvious form of mental illness and occurs when an individuals perception and interpre- tation of lived experience is abnormal and inappropriate causing to have a distorted interaction with reality. Disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are psychotic disorders. It raised many questions regarding the nature of psychotic experi- ences and here in Trinidad we chose the TunapunaPiarco region and highlighted the need for more collaboration between research and clinical practice. The project also identified the lack of support that most people feel when one of their family suffers from mental illness. Spiritual and supernatural services abound and share more similarities than differences in spite of religious and ethnic ideologies. The project ran from 2011-2014 and the first paper from the project was recently published in Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. httpwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.govpubmed25631693. I was also a judge for new research at the International Conference on Schizophrenia in Chennai India in 2012. The other major project has been an anger management project in the Golden Grove prison. Again this is a collaboration with the University of Birmingham and the University of Swansea. Here we are seeking to train prison officers and prisoners to practice anger management through a simple behavioural technique that can be extended throughout the prison and indeed other settings where destructive responses to anger might be prevalent. This project also sought to employ postgraduate students and graduates of our MSc in Clinical Psychology programme in order to give them some practical experience.It was funded by the Research Development Initiative RDI fund of the GORTT.I expect publications from this project to begin to appear later this year.The management and supervision of this project has been undertaken by Dr Tony Bastickwho works in the Psychiatry Unit Faculty of Medical Sciences where I currently function as Unit Lead. There has also been a collaboration with the University of Toronto which has resulted in three book chapters on commu- nity mental health and psychotherapy in Trinidad and the wider Caribbean over the past five years being published. Two of the books are already published and the third is due this year. HutchinsonG. P.Sutherland.Counselling and Psychotherapy in the English speaking Caribbean. Fidelity fit or a cause for concern In Handbook of counselling and psychotherapy in an international context. Eds R. Moodley UP Gielen R.Wu 117- 127.RoutledgeNew York2013. Hutchinson G. Community mental health in the English speaking Caribbean. In Caribbean healing traditions. Implica- tions for health and mental health.Eds.P.SutherlandR Mood- ley B Chevannes.203-214.RoutledgeNew York2013. In addition I have also supervised undergraduate medical student projects alongside those of postgraduate trainees in Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology resulting in presentations at local regional and international conferences. I have recently joined the Caribbean Public Health Agency CARPHA in 2013 as a member of their Research Advisory Committee. Selected Publications Zimbron J. D. Stahl G. Hutchinson et al. Pre-morbid fertility in psychosisfindings from the Aesop first episode study.Schizophre- nia Research 201415623168-173. Morgan C. M. Charalambides G. Hutchinson and R.M. Murray. Migrationethnicity and psychosis.Toward a socio-developmental model.Schizophrenia Bulletin2010364655-64. Changoor T. and G. Hutchinson. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a Trinidadian cardiac population.WestIndianMedical Journal2013627620-627. 181 182 As a neuroscientist I have been involved in both clinical and basic brain research. Our clinical research team is composed of myself Drs.Nelleen Baboolal and Gershwin Davis. We have enjoyed a very fruitful collaboration for well over a decade. Our group is mainly involved in dementia research. We are all the co-directors of Dementia Awareness and Research of Trinidad and Tobago DARTT a nonprofit company established and incorporated in order to better pursue our research goals and to extend the aware- ness of dementia to the general population. Our research can be considered as a three-pronged approach. We have been searching for a biomarker to differentiate Alzheimers disease patients from other dementias establishing the degree of burden for persons caring for relatives with Alzheimers disease and we are establishing the prevalence and economic cost of dementia in Trinidad and Tobago. Clinical Neuroscience Research Biomarkers Predicting who develops Alzheimers disease AD is problematic due to the very nature of the disorder.There is a need therefore for biomarkers to flag early cell death as this may allow for treatment interventions which could arrest or postpone neuropathological processes.Biomarkers are currently detected in either the cerebro- spinal fluid or serum. One of the most important aspects of a biomarker is that it can distinguish Alzheimers disease patients from other dementias and aged matched controls. A popular choice of biomarkers has been abnormal proteinswhich are major players in the pathogenesis of the disorder.Thus a major effort has been devoted to detecting these proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid. However other factors such as inflammation also play a significant role in the events leading up to Alzheimers pathology. The microglia cell which is the immune cell of the brain plays a significant role in the early events leading to AD pathology. Thus in view of its role in the pathogenesis of AD our demonstration that the cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients contained an antibody directed against microglia provided a strong argument to pursue these antibodies as potential biomarkers. The preliminary results indicate that for CSF antibodies we have a new ELISA test that is at best good at distinguishing AD patients from controls. This test should be studied not only in patients with Alzheimers disease but also in other groups of patients such as those classified as mildly cognitive impaired. With the presence of antibody in patients and not controls it is anticipated that the CSF biomarker would find an application in the most sophisticated clinical settings as well as the most remote ones. We are interested in extending the further development of this ELISA to detecting antibodies in the serum of patients. Caregiver burden in Trinidad and Tobago Dementia is a gradual and progressively degenerative disease that is accompanied by challenging changes in the affected persons emotions and presenting behaviours. Caring for an individual with dementia is globally recognized as being a considerable burden and stressful. The burden of providing care for dementia patients places caregivers at risk for physical and emotional problems. In view that the level of caregiver burden is unknown in Trinidad and Tobago we have been investigating caregiver burden in individu- als caring for patients with dementia. Our study included 75 caregivers and their relatives. To establish the level of caregiver burdenindividuals were administered two questionnaires. The investigation established that 80 of caregivers in Trinidad and Tobago are femalein keeping with the international trend. Thus far the profile of caregiver burden in Trinidad and Tobago is as followsMore than half of the caregivers 55 had moderate to severe burden 45 of the caregivers experienced little or no burden.This might reflect the easy acceptance of dementia for the elderly in the Trinidadian population where taking care of the elderly is a normal intergenerational experience. Another issue that this ongoing study hints at is the impact of unpaid care-giving on the financial health of caregivers who are middle aged and have other responsibilities including taking care of their own families. Our findings underline the global impact of caring for a person with dementia and support the need for caregiver supporteducationtraining and access to medical care.. Prevalence and economic cost of dementia in Trinidad and Tobago Very little is known about the prevalence and cost of dementia in Trinidad and Tobago even though we are an aging nation. Our investigation is the first prevalence of dementia survey in Trinidad and Tobago and will also provide strong indicators about the economic burden of the disorder. The key research instrument known as the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia has successfully established the prevalence of dementia in a number of countries including Latin America Caribbean Asia and Africa. This instrument was created by the 1066 Dementia Research Group based in the UK. This questionnaire together with a socioeconomic questionnaire MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Human Anatomy Department of Preclinical Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 4633 E-mails PROF. AMANDA McRAE 183 prepared by the HEU Centre for Health Economics will be used to conduct interviews.To ensure that our interviews are conducted in a manner similar to those performed in the other countries a training workshop was organized. Professor Robert Stewart Institute of Psychiatry Kings College London a founding member of the 1066 Dementia Research Group trained persons who were selected to conduct the research.He is an internationally established epidemiologist and section head at the University of London who has conducted prevalence studies in numerous developing and developed countries. The study began in July 2014 and includes the following partici- pants 2000 persons randomly selected for interviews from all munici- palities in age ranges as follows 500 participants aged 60-69 years 500 aged 70-79 500 aged 80-89500 aged 90. Approach unique to Trinidad and Tobago First survey of a national population rather than a geographic catchment First such survey to adopt age-stratified sampling. Costing of dementia Expected Impacts Accurate assessment of the number of dementia cases in Trinidad and Tobago thereby allowing government and health and welfare organizations to plan adequate services. Identify the prevalence of dementia subtypes in Trinidad and possible risk factors Describe the living circumstances and care arrangements of people with dementia Quantify the economic cost of dementia for households. Raise awareness of dementia. More information about our research and future plans can be found at the following website Basic Neuroscience Research My department of Preclinical Sciences introduced the MPhilPhD degree in Neuroscience in 2007. In 2014 it was with great pride that my postgraduate student Ashton Rogers presented his thesis for the first PhD degree in Neuroscience at The University of the West Indies. His thesis was entitled Diet Inflammation and the substantia nigra. In the late 80s I was a part of a team that demon- strated that inflammation could be playing a role in Parkinsons disease. This disorder is caused when a substantial number of dopamine producing neurons in a region known as the substantia nigra degenerate. For Ashton Rogers PhD we continued to examine the role of inflammation in the brain with new approaches.A single injection of lipopolysaccharide LPS induces dopamine DA cell death in the substantia nigra through an inflammatory mediated pathway. A high intake of calories is generally considered to provoke peripheral inflammation and could have consequences on the brain.We selected to investigate the influence of a high intake of calories in the presence of a low- grade inflammation which was induced by diluting the normal dose of lipopolysaccharide.Our findings indicate the addition of a sucrose solution to the diet accelerates inflammation and provokes a greater destruction to the dopamine neurons. Thus diet in combination with a minor inflammation in dopamine neurons which could occur in the early stages of Parkinsons disease could provoke a neurodegenerative cascade of events leading to an accelerated pathological state. Selected publications Davis G. N. Baboolal R. Mckay D. Pritchard and A. McRae. Antibodies to MHCI are associated with Alzheimers disease. AACC Annual Meeting July 15-19 2012 Los Angeles CA USA. Davis G. N. Baboolal S. Teelucksingh J. Ramesar and A McRae. Investigatingcognitive function in Type 2 diabetic patients using multiple testing instruments A case control study. West Indian Med.J. 2011 60 Suppl. 2 42 Baboolal N.S. G. Davis R. Stewart J. Ramesar and A. Mc Rae. Pioneering study on caregiver burden and dementia in the southern Caribbean. Alzheimers Dementia The Journal of the Alzheimers Association 2010 6 4 Supplement S335-S335 3. 184 Following graduation 1974 with medals and distinctions in anatomy and surgery Professor Vijay Naraynsingh has had a distinguished career that led to fellowships in several interna- tional colleges Reader in Surgery 1990 Personal Chair 1997 and Departmental Chair 2002 in The University of the West Indies. He has served as President of the Caribbean College of Surgeons since 2007 and was the scientific secretary of the Caribbean Health Research Council for 13 years.He is the recipient of awards from 32 organisations internationally regionally and locally for his contributions to medicine community service and humanitarian work. At age 42 he was one of the youngest recipi- ents of the National Award The Chaconia Gold for service in Medicine to Trinidad and Tobago. In 2003 he was the first Caribbean surgeon to be granted the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons FRCS England without examination.He was also the first Caribbean surgeon to be made an Examiner at the Royal College of Surgeons of England for their postgraduate surgical exams. In 1991 he was chosen by Medicins Sans Frontires Nobel Laureate to be one of five surgeons worldwide to sit on an international panel on colon trauma surgery Brussels Belgium. He was chosen as the surgeon to the Pope when John Paul II visited Trinidad and Tobago in 1985. Internationally Professor Naraynsingh has been a pioneer in the design of twelve new operations never done in the world before. These procedures have all been recorded in the interna- tional surgical literatureThey includethe Lateral Approach to the Profunda Femoris Artery in 1984 - this technique facilitates bypass to the lower limb in complex cases improving limb salvage Rectus Repair for Abdominal Wall Hernias in 1993 - this effectively strengthens the abdominal wall preventing recurrent abdominal hernias Transperitoneal Exclusion for Aortic Aneurysm in 1999 which addresses the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms Minilaporotomy ureterolithotomy in 2003 which facilitates ureteric stone removal using a minimally invasive techniqueSimple Repair in 1998Delayed Repair in 2003 and Late Delayed Repair in 2009 for Fractured Penis and Swiss Roll Opera- tion for Giant Fibroadenoma which involves removing giant breast growths. In the Caribbean region he has been credited with the following firsts replantation surgery 1984 vascularised free tissue transfer 1984 myocutaneous flaps for breast recon- struction 1981 laparoscopic cholecystectomy 1991 retroperitoneal aortic surgery 1984 and minilaporotomy cholecystectomy 1992. In addition to introducing these advances to the Caribbean he has been the first to perform kidney transplantation in 1988 carotid surgery for stroke under local anaesthesia in 1984 no colostomy surgery for left colon obstruction in 1985 and colon trauma in 1991 and extensive use of myocutaneous flaps in general and orthopaedic surgery from 1981 to 2010 in Trinidad and Tobago. Professor Naraynsingh is an educator community leader mentor scholar adviser author and surgeon. He has taught and administered programmes at The University of the West Indies for more than 30 years and has started the postgraduate surgical specialties and sub-specialties in Trinidad and Tobago. He exhib- its outstanding work ethic professionalism and leadership. He is passionate about teaching and improving the quality of instruc- tion and his contribution to surgery in the West Indies is remark- able He revised the surgery curriculum and radically changed the structure of the final MBBS examination ten years ago. Outstanding Research Accomplishments Professor Naraynsingh is one of our Universitys most published academics. He has co-authored five book chapters on vascular thyroid and leg ulcer surgery by international publishers and has authored over 250 indexed articles in peer-reviewed high impact factor journals. He has written in every major English-speaking surgical journal including the prestigious British Journal of Surgery American Journal of Surgery Archives of Surgery World Journal of Surgery Australian New Zealand Journal of Surgery Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburghthe Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine. He has delivered presentations on 108 scientific platforms internationally regionally and locally including papers at the American College of Surgeonsthe Mayo Clinicthe Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland the Surgical Research Society UK and the Vascular Society of India. He has also published more than one hundred abstracts. Professor Naraynsinghs published work reflects a pioneering surgical spirit seeking new solutions to longstanding surgical problems frequently challenging dogma. His three recent publications include A new clinical sign for Breast Cancer Naraynsingh VMaharaj R Dan D Hariharan S. The bra sign in breast cancer. Breast J. 2012186616-617.doi10.1111tbj.12018.Epub 2012 Sep 26. MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Surgery Head Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences Tel 868 663 4319 E-mail Website PROF. VIJAY NARAYNSINGH 185 A new classification for perforated diverticulitis Naraynsingh V Maharaj R Hassranah D Hariharan S Dan D Zbar AP. Perforated left-sided diverticulitis with faecal peritonitisis the Hinchey classification the best guide for surgical decision making Tech Coloproctol 2011 15 2 199-203. doi 10.1007s10151-011-0675-7.Epub 2011 Jan 27. The first technique of preoperative predicition of shunting in carotid surgery.Naraynsingh VHarnarayan PMaharaj RDan D Hariharan S. Preoperative digital carotid compression as a predictor of the need for shunting during carotid endarterec- tomy. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2013 15 7 110-112. doi 10.21741874192401307010110.eCollection 2013. Professor Naraynsinghs evidence of excellence in supervision is demonstrated by mentoring over fifty colleagues on their first scientific publication and training over 20 successful specialist surgeons almost single-handedly. These surgeons are employed at the highest level at home and abroad. He continues to publish at a phenomenal rate having authored 57 publications in peer-reviewed journals between 2011 and 2014. On the basis of his published work Professor Naraynsingh has been invited to lecture and sit on international expert panels. Outstanding Contribution to Public Service He has led outreach activities beginning since graduation from medical school. He has founded the Avatar Medical Auxiliary which provides access for the underprivileged to medical and surgical care. To further this goalon six separate occasionshe set up activities to provide 108 patients with free surgical treatment. He was also the Trinidad and Tobago consultant surgeon for the Kids First programme for underprivileged children in Guyana. For more than 30 years Professor Naraynsingh has shared his secret of success with up and coming young students through youth groups holding camps and illustrating study techniques for students from age 13-23 years. The most recent workshop recorded 300 attendees from over 20 schools and tertiary institutions. These social endeavours have been well appreciated by recipients as well as organizations national and international including the Government of Trinidad and Tobago The Rotary Club The Lions Club St. George County Council San Fernando City Council and the Spiritual Baptist Church. His most recent awards include the Award for Excellence in Medicine and Community Service Global Organization of People of Indian Origin in August 2010 and the Award of Excellence for Excep- tional Contributions to Educational Development Medical and Community Service and Humanitarianism in the Caribbean by The Holi Samelan Committee of New YorkUSA in September 2010. Selected Publications NaraynsinghV.R.MaharajD.Dan and S.Hariharan.The bra sign in breast cancer. Breast J. 2012 18 6 616-617. doi 10.1111tbj.12018. Epub 2012 Sep 26. Naraynsingh V. R. Maharaj D. Hassranah S. Hariharan D. Dan and A.P.Zbar.Perforated left-sided diverticulitis with faecal peritonitisis the Hinchey classification the best guide for surgical decision making TechColoproctol2011152199-203.doi10.1007s10151- 011-0675-7.Epub 2011 Jan 27. Naraynsingh V. P. Harnarayan R. Maharaj D. Dan and S. Hariharan. Preoperative digital carotid compression as a predictor of the need for shunting during carotid endarterectomy.OpenCardiovascMedJ. 2013 15 7 110-112. doi10.21741874192401307010110. eCollec- tion 2013. 186 Professor Nayak joined The University of the West IndiesFaculty of Medical Sciences as a lecturer. He was promoted to the rank of senior lecturer and then to professor in the years 2007 and 2012 respectively. The student community rated him with a consistent score of above 4.7 maximum 5.He received the UWIGuardian Life Premium Teaching Award in 2010.He is also a recipient of outstand- ing Preclinical Lecturer award from Trinidad and Tobago Medical Students Association 2013 and Movements for Encouragement and Dharmic Services Association 2011 and 2012. In 2013 he received the Vice Chancellors Award For Excellence In Teaching.He has written textbooks for medicaldentalnursing and allied health students.All these books have become popular among the student community in IndiaTrinidad and other countries. Professor Nayak is a renowned clinical biochemist and serves on the North Regional Health Authority as Honorary Consultant Biochemist.He is also a course convenor for MDSC 1101-Digestion and Metabolism.He is a chairman of the Ethics CommitteeFaculty of Medical Sciences. Research Accomplishments As a researcher Professor Nayak has published more than 85 articles in the area of type 2 diabetes and wound healing in national and international peer-reviewed journals. He has super- vised more than 20 medical student research groups thatwith his guidance were able to win the best research award in the Caribbean Health Research Council meeting and the Medical Sciences research day. Professor Nayak is an editorial member for more than eight international research journals and a reviewer for 30 international journals. Since 2005 he has individually and jointly attracted research grants worth TT 216000 from UWI Campus Research grants Caribbean Health Research Council and TT 44000 from the Trinidad and Tobago Government Research Grant. Research Summary Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion insulin actionor both.Poor glycaemic controlobesity and lifestyle are some of the factors that have been implicated in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease amongst diabetic patients in the Trinidad population. Obesity is inversely related to adiponectin a protein that is synthesised exclusively in adipose tissue. Growing evidence suggests that adiponectin is an important determinant of insulin resistance since it acts either hormonally or locally on adipocytes to alter insulin signaling and influences glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating levels of adiponectin are also associ- ated with better lipid profile particularly higher levels of HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides decreased inflammation and improved glycaemic control. Chronic inflammation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown a relationship between the onset of type 2 diabetes and various inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein CRP Interleukin IL-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha TNF- . The relationship of Inflammatory markers and other biochemical parameters with type 2 diabetes Professor Nayaks research group attempted to study the levels of inflammatory markers metabolic variables adiponectin and anthropometric variables and their relationship with the risk of type 2 diabetes.The results of their study have provided significant relationships between adiponectin and insulin resistance obesity and blood lipids. Abnormal lipid profile low levels of adiponectin and varied blood pressure are associated in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic subjects with regards to age gender and ethnicity. Adiponectin and TNF- appear to be related to differences in the insulin mediated glucose turnover. These findings if established can provide a useful tool for the clinician to prevent further progression of the diseases and complications that may arise. The research group have also investigated the association of creatinine and other demographic variables with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The data from their study showed an association of low serum creatinine abnormal lipid profile and demographic variables in type 2 diabetic Trinidadian subjects. The group also determined the relationship between RBC membrane and serum lipid composition in type 2 diabetes subjects with and without nephropathy. The data suggested that there is a relationship between RBC membrane and serum lipid composition in subjects with type 2 diabetes with and without nephropathy. This relationship shows that diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the alterations of the lipids both in serum and RBC membrane. Diabetes and microvascular complications Reseaech shows that increases in serum sialic acid and microalbu- min were strongly related to the presence of microvascular MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Biochemistry Department of Preclinical Sciences Tel 868 662 1873 ext. 4641 Mobile 868 720 2921 E-mail PROF. SHIVANANDA NAYAK 187 complications like diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and waist to hip ratios in Caribbean type-2 diabetic patients. Therefore the use of the serum sialic acid as an inflammatory marker and possible indicator of microvascular complications in type-2 diabetic patients is recommended. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortal- ity worldwide and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been thoroughly investigated. In recent years the use of biomarkers has emerged as a method to identify individuals at high risk with the aim of earlier identification and risk mitigation. Among the most promising non-traditional markers are BNP and NT-proBNP. Prof Nayak and his group determined the role of certain markers in identifying the risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic as well as non-diabetic patients. Their study conducted with Trindadian diabetic populationsshowed a signifi- cant correlation with elevated NT-proBNP and traditional risk factors hypertensiondiabetesdyslipidemia and elevated hs-CRP as compared with non-diabetics. NT-proBNP co-segregates with traditional risk factors for CVD among elderly diabetics and may be a useful additional screening test for those at risk of CVD. The research group studied the relationship of homocysteine hs-CRP with known cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. They found that the serum C-reactive protein is signifi- cantly related to features of metabolic syndrome. Total plasma homocysteine appears to be independent of both hs-CRP and features of metabolic syndrome. Wound healing As a principal investigator Prof Nayak has formed a cluster group comprising biochemists pathologists pharmacologists and research students.He has screened many medicinal plants that are available in Trinidad and Tobago and has tested their efficacy in healing wounds. Summary Wound healing is a very systematic process characterized by four distinct but overlapping phases haemostasis inflammation proliferation and remodeling. Current methods used to manage chronic wounds include debridement tissue grafting antibiotic therapy and proteolytic enzyme therapy. Extensive studies of medicinal plants have been conducted to identify other possible methods of wound management outside the standard treatment methods. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago Prof Nayak has screened various medicinal plants available in Trinidad and evaluated some of them for their wound healing activity using different wound models such as excision incision and dead space in rats. He has screened more than 50 medicinal plants to determine their wound healing as well as hypoglycaemic activity. Some of the plant and plant products which showed promising results aregrape skinHibiscus sp.Allamanda sp.Catha- ranthus sp.Carapa sp.grape and cranberry oils and noni. The various medicinal plants screened and tested are associ- ated with significant wound healing and hypoglycaemic activity. More specifically they have observed increased rates of wound contractionhydroxyproline contentand decrease in epithelializa- tion time with the extract of grape skin Morinda citrifolia noni Carica papaya cranberry and grape skin oils. These suggested to us that these medicinal plants play a significant role in hastening the process of wound healing. The group has extensively screened noni fruit which is widely available and used in Trinidad. The fermented juice of noni was found to have wound healing as well as anti-diabetic properties. The study suggests fermented juice of noni be used to control the blood sugar level in type 2 diabetic subjects. Selected Publications NayakB.S.D.RamsinghS.GoodingG.LegallS.BissramA.Moham- medA.RaychaudhuriB.SahadeoV.Pandohie and K.Figaro.Plasma adiponectin levels are related to obesity inflammation blood lipids and insulin in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic Trinidadians. Primary Diabetes Care20104267-68. NayakB.S.TeelucksinghAvinash JagessarShivanand Maharaj and Nadira Maharaj. A cross sectional study comparing traditional risk factors with N-terminal pro-BNP in high risk groups for cardiovas- cular disease in Trinidad West Indies. Diabetes Metabolic SyndromeClinical Research Reviews2013718-11. Nayak B.S. J.R. Marshall D.D. Ramdath G. Isitor S. Xue and J. Shi. Wound healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.Phytother.Res.20112581201-1208. 188 Although my academic work goes back into the early 90s as director of a training programme in Public Health I developed for the Basque Ministry of Health in Spain my connection with The UWI started at Cave Hill Barbados in 2007 as the first holder of a newly created Chair in Public Health and Epidemiology established by Senate in response to a long-standing need expressed by the CARICOM Ministers of Health for the university to undertake a major programme of Public Health Leadership Training. In this respect I joined the team assembled by Professor Bain from CHART to found the Caribbean Health Leadership Institute CHLI in order to raise the skills in health leadership of senior health professional throughout the region. Six cohorts of Caribbean health leaders have shared their experiences and set up a fruitful Alumni group to keep developing common interests. After graduating in SpainI practiced family medicine for some time before deciding to become a public health specialist and enrolled for the Masters of Science in Public Health at Edinburgh University Medical School.With training in South West London for Public Health based at St Georges Medical School I became a Public Health Specialist and a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons of the UK. During that time I engaged in research concerning a new approach to improve clinical practice the introduction of medical audit for which I developed a customized index or inventory of achievements for geriatric day hospitals in the UK. Following my return to Spainin 1992as the director of public health training for the Basque country I continued my work on clinical audit and published a series of five papers on the topic. I also worked on the development and coordination of the Basque Cancer Registry. Sastre B Esparza H Larraaga N Sanzo JM Muniozguren N Ortega J M. Incidencia del cncer infantil en la comunidad autnoma del Pas Vasco1989-1993 Osasunkaria.19981614-19 From the land of the BasqueI then traveled across the world to land in the Pacific paradise Fiji where I help to set up a Health Services Management Unit within the Department of Public Health at the Medical Schooland taught and trained at the turn of the millennium. Soon after that I started working in New Zealand at the Environmental and Sciences Research Institute in Welling- ton as senior epidemiologist and team leader for SARS Surveil- lance and programme leader for the surveillance and control of STIs in New Zealand. Ortega JM ORourke K and Badkar J. Sexually Transmitted Infections in New Zealand Annual Surveillance Report 2002 ESRPoriruaMay 200 Gilmore KMartin MOrtega JMGarret N.Sexually Transmitted Infections in New Zealand Annual Surveillance Report 2001. ESRPoriruaMay 2002 Baker M Ortega-Benito J Garret N Bromhead C Leslie K MacDonald J McNicholas A. Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female New Zealand university students. N Z Med J. 121181220 Aug 2005 I also engaged in a novel line of research as project leader for the DNA fingerprinting of all TB isolates in New Zealand since July 2002. This was a 2-3 year project funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Health 500K to use the molecular epidemiology of TB to help in the control outbreak identification and prevention of TB in the countryincluding multi-drug resistant strains. In the UK primarily in London and the south of England and during the two periods between my New Zealand and Caribbean experiences 2003-07 and 2009-14 I was first the Deputy and then the Acting Director of Public Health DPH for NHS Richmond and in 2010 Joint Director of Public Health in NHS Swindon and Swindon Borough Council a unitary local authority in the south- west of England.The DPH is responsible for the health of the local population and the delivery of key public health goals using the opportunities of system reform regulation and performance arrangements to ensure that public health goals are at the heart of the local agendaand supporting the requirements of national and regional preventative strategies.As DPH I had to direct and lead in the investigationresearch of the health and its determinants of the population of Swindon in order to produce a Joint Strategic Needs Assessment JSNA with which to establish the main priorities for the protection and the promotion of health and the prevention of illness. As the Directorate was aiming to tackle the main social and clinical determinants of health it needed to include other than health services the main communitys stakeholders such as education social services law enforcement and the local economy. The JSNA in turn resulted in the produc- tion of an independent annual Director of Public Health report on the health of the local population. Since the starting work in Public HealthI have been involved in national screening programmes both for adults such as cancer screening breast cervical colorectal or diabetic retinopathy screening and abdominal aneurism of aorta and anteneonatal screening Downs syndrome newborn hearing screening MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Public Health Department of Para-Clinical Sciences Tel 868 645 6741645 3232 ext. 2838 E-mail PROF. JOSE M. ORTEGA 189 globinopathies foetal development screening etc as well as in the teaching and application of evidence-based health care and the critical appraisal of the scientific literature. After a few years in the UK 2009-14 I am back in The UWI as Professor of Public Health with the mission to establish a multidis- ciplinary Public Health Academic Centre for the South Eastern Caribbean. In this endeavour the harmonization of the Master of Public Health MPH core courses between the three UWI campuses has become essential to improve the quality and to expand the graduate offer in Public Health. The newly proposed Graduate Diploma in Health Services Management will bein time an integral part of the MPH Programme that I am proud to lead. Selected Publications Ortega-Benito J M and Mundy K.Towards the audit of geriatric day hospitals A pilot project in West SurreyNorth East Hants. Journal of Public Health Medicine199214310-320 Ortega-Benito J M. Los marcadores sricos en el diagnstico prenatal del sndrome de Down la prueba triple. Med Clin Barc 1995105264-268 BakerMOrtega-BenitoJGarretNBromheadCLeslieKMacDon- ald J and McNicholas A. Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female New Zealand university students N Z Med J. 200512118 190 In my scientific career to date I have gained considerable experi- ence working in both the UK and worldwide. I have a strong background in the disciplines of immunology and molecular biology within the veterinary virology and parasitology fields. Having studied to be a veterinary surgeon at the Royal Veterinary College in London I then worked as a veterinary practitioner in a mixed private practice in the south of the UK for three years. On leaving private practice I successfully completed an MSc in Tropical Veterinary Science at the Centre for Veterinary Tropical Medicine CTVM at Edinburgh University. During my MSc I had my first foray into the field of research working with the important zoonotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii.I then gained a scholarship to work for two years as a laboratory assistant in the Immunology and Parasitology departments of the University of Yucatan in Mexico.Back in the UK I then completed my PhD in the immuno- pathogenesis of African Swine Fever Virus ASFV at the Institute for Animal HealthPirbright.During my PhD I carried out ground- breaking research identifying for the first time that ASFV-infected cells actually commit suicide undergo apoptosis and that certain types of immune cells CD8 cytotoxic T cells play a critical role in the hosts immune response to the virus.Both these findings played a leading role in understanding how and why ASFV causes such fatal clinical signs and helped the scientific community to target their approaches to vaccine develop- ment. Having completed my PhD I successfully secured two consecutive highly competitive Wellcome Trust Personal Fellow- ships which enabled me to make a name for myself in the Theileria research arena. The first of these fellowships was a four-year Advanced Training Fellowship which was awarded by the Tropical Interest Group of the Wellcome Trust during which time I investigated molecular aspects of the immunobiology of the bovine haemoparasite Theileria annulata.This fellowship resulted in several publications in which I used differential RNA display and proteomic technologies to identify genes that were involved in the life cycle stages of this important veterinary parasite. I was then awarded a personal Tropical Research Fellowship by the Tropical Interest Group of the Wellcome Trust to work in collabo- ration with the University of Glasgow and the University of Makerere in Uganda.I took full advantage of the rare opportunity to contribute to research in Uganda where I personally equipped and set up my own molecular research lab and then used this lab to investigate the molecular epidemiology and population genet- ics of Theileria parva.During this three-year fellowship I published a total of 12 papers eight first author which made a significant contribution to the understanding of the population structure of this important parasitewhich had very important implications for vaccine development. I returned from Uganda to the world famous Pirbright labora- tory in the UK where I spent the next eight years carrying out research on various exotic veterinary viruses. During this period I was head of the World Organisation for Animal Health OIE European Community and UK national reference lab for Bluetongue BThead of the OIE and UK national reference lab for African Horse Sickness AHS and African Swine Fever ASF and head of the OIE FAO world and UK national reference lab for Rinderpest and Peste de Petit Ruminants PPR. I was OIE designated disease expert for African Swine fever Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness from 2005-2012. During this period I contributed significantly to the control and eventual eradication of the first ever outbreak of BT in Northern Europe as well as the UK was laboratory operations manager during the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Diseases virus FMDV in the UK in 2007 and as head of the World Reference Laboratory for Rinderpest played a significant role in the final stages leading up to the global eradica- tion of Rinderpest in 2011.Research highlights during this period at IAH-Pirbright included the discovery that the BTV serotype that reached Northern Europe and the UK in 20067 was being transmitted both orally and transplacentally making it a unique and extremely dangerous strain of the virus. My research work investigating the efficiency and longevity of the immune response to BTV vaccination in sheep and cattle as well as the extent of colostral transfer of antibodies in calves and lambs and the levels of vaccine interference due to colostral antibodies in young animals optimised the use of the newly produced vaccine to BTV serotype 8 and contributed significantly to the successful control and eradication of the virus from Northern Europe. My research group also identified two new serotypes of BTV one of which BTV-26 was identified as being the first BTV to be transmitted from animal to animal by direct contact as opposed to via the bite of an infected Culicoides midge. This was the first report of any BTV strain being transmitted through direct contact and is a highly significant and potentially worrying finding considering the known potential of co-circulating BTV strains to undergo reassortment in the field. During this period at IAH- Pirbright I published widely in many areas including African Swine Fever Virus vaccine developmentAfrican horse sickness epidemi- ology sheepox goatpox and lumpy skin disease transmission MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor in Veterinary Virology School of Veterinary Medicine Tel 868 645 3232 ext. 4220 work 868 725 4263 mobile Fax 868 645 7428 E-mail PROF. CHRIS OURA 191 mechanisms and Peste de Petit Ruminants virus transmission in African wildlife. In early 2012 I moved to a new post as senior lecturer in veteri- nary virology at the School of Veterinary Medicine SVM within the Faculty of Medical Sciences FMS at The University of the West Indies UWI and was promoted to the role of Professor in February 2014. Since starting at The UWI in January 2012 I have submitted seven grants for funding as Principal Investigator PI and one as a co-applicant.I am in the process of setting up a one- health based research programme concentrating on pathogens of importance within the Caribbean region. I am currently the principal supervisor of three postgraduate students two PhD and one MPhil. I am currently conducting five main research activities and am actively pursuing opportunities to enter into other areas of research through ongoing grant applications Respiratory viruses in avian and swine populations in Trinidad and Tobago. This work has been funded by the UWI Research Development and Impact RDI fund for TT80000 and has one PhD and one MPhil student working on it. Work is progressing well on this grant and many of the samples have been collected from the field.Relevant assays ELISA and real- time PCR have and are being set up in the newly formed molecular diagnostic lab at the SVM and samples will be tested in the next few months. Identification of Culicoides species and related viruses in Trinidad and Tobago. This work is partially funded by the Livestock and Livestock Products Board LLPB of Trinidad and has one PhD student working on it. Work is progressing well on this project with four serotypes of Bluetongue virus BTV being identified to be circulating in Trinidad. Other viruses that are transmitted by Culicoides midges have been identi- fied and work is ongoing to identify the species of Culicoides midges that are present in Trinidad. Molecular identification of Eimeria species in poultry in Trinidad and Tobago.This work is funded by the UWI Research and Publication fund. Through real-time PCR technology this project has identified the species of Eimeria parasites that are present in Trinidadian poultry which will help farmers to control this globally important parasite within Trinidad. Causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago.This work is funded through an SVM undergraduate student project with co-funding from Nestle.This project has success- fully identified two important pathogens in Trinidad cattle that may be causing subfertility and abortion. Other impor- tant reproductive pathogens have also been ruled out as a cause of abortion. Promotion of the One Health concept across the Caribbean region. The University of the West Indies along with PAHOWHO CIRAD FAO and the Ministries of Agriculture of GuyanaGrenada and St Kitts Nevis as partners have recently been successful in securing funding Euros 1.164000 from the European Commission ACP ST II for a project entitled One Health One Caribbean One Love. The two main aims of this three-year project will be to promote and entrench a One Health approach to zoonotic and food borne disease surveillance diagnosis and response within the Caribbean region as well as to strengthen the ability of Caribbean countries to recognise diagnose and respond to animal zoonotic diseases. Selected Publications Oura C.A.L. P.P Powell and R.M.E Parkhouse. African swine fever a disease characterised by apoptosis. Journal of General Virology 1998 79 1427-1438. Oura C.A.L. B. Asiimwe W. Weir G.W. Lubega and A. Tait. Popula- tion genetics and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in Uganda. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 2005 149 229-239. Oura C.A.L. James Wood Anna Sanders Abid Bin-Tarif Mark Henstock Lorraine Edwards Toby Floyd Hugh Simmons and Carrie Batten. Seroconversion neutralising antibodies and protection in bluetongue Serotype 8 vaccinated sheep. Vaccine 2009 27 73267330 192 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professsor of Reproductive Medicine Dean Faculty of Medical Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext.5025 E-mail PROF. SAMUEL RAMSEWAK My promotion to the rank of Professor in 2001 was the first in the speciality of Reproductive Medicine in The UWI. At that time my bibliography revealed one book seven chapters in books 50 publications in refereed journals as well as numerous conference presentations. Much of the work in my areas of expertise was in the fields of a Chlamydia infection in the female and b Assisted Reproduc- tive Technologies. The work on Chlamydia infection led to the award of the MD By Research in 1999 and this was the first such degree to be awarded by The UWI. TitleChlamydia trachomatis and Abnormal Reproductive Function in the Female ThemeThis was a study of the organism C.trachomatis which was becoming increasingly recognised to be the commonest sexually transmitted disease worldwide even surpassing gonorrhoea syphilis and HIV. Long term consequences include ectopic pregnancy and possibly miscarriage. Since the organism is difficult to identify this work sought to locate Chlamydial DNA within freshly acquired infected tissues such as the Fallopian tubes the ovaries and the uterine lining endometrium. Together with research colleagues at the University of SheffieldUK we accumulated the largest database in the research community worldwidefor Chlamydial DNA in these tissues. Presentations of thesis-generated work at International Scientific Meetings 173rd Meeting of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.Southampton UK 1996 3rd Meeting of European Society for Chlamydial Research ViennaAustria 1996 Joint International Postgraduate Conference of the Gynaeco- logical and Obstetrical Society of Trinidad and Tobago and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists UK.Trinidad 1997 Meeting of Federation of European Microbiological Societies IzmirTurkey 1997 175th Meeting of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.SheffieldUK 1997 76th Meeting of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.LondonUK 1998 9th International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infection NapaCalifornia USA 1998 Selected Publications Ramsewak S. I.D. Cooke T.C. Li A. Kumar N. Monks and E. Lenton. Are factors that influence oocyte fertilization also predictive An assessment of 148 cycles of in vitro fertilization without gonado- trophin stimulation.Fertility and Sterility199054470-474. Ramsewak S. S. Sargeant E. Anderson and I.D. Cooke. Develop- ment of a modified bivalve speculum for donor insemination. British Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology 199097455-456 Ramsewak S. C. Baratt T.C. Li H. Gooch and I.D. Cooke. Peritoneal sperm recovery can be consistently demonstrated in women with unexplained infertility. Fertility and Sterility 1990 531106-1108 1990 193 Medical students in Eric Williams Medical Sciences ComplexMt Hope 194 A proud graduate of The University of the West Indies Professor Seemungal obtained his Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery training in Trinidad and continued his professional training in the United Kingdom. He then returned to Trinidad in 2003 as a Senior Lecturer in Medicine at the St. Augustine Campus of The University of the West Indies and Honorary Consultant Physician at the Port of Spain General Hospital. He was subsequently elevated to the rank of Professor of Medicine in 2011 where he continues his research into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and other chronic lung diseases. Professor Seemungal is currently Head of Department and President of the Thoracic Society of Trinidad and Tobago. COPD Not a breath of fresh air COPD is a progressive disease that makes breathing difficult and has major impacts on a variety of health outcomes includ- ing quality of life hospital admission and death. COPD is expected to be the third leading cause of death and the sixth leading cause of morbidity by 2020. Local research conducted by Professor Seemungal showed that COPD was present in about 20 of admissions to the General Hospital in Port of Spain with a similar prevalence in the chronic disease patients attending the local health centres. These findings have resulted in a greater emphasis on research into lung function and management of airways diseases in Trinidad. Internationally Professor Seemungal transformed the approach to managing COPD when he showed in 1998 that the frequency of chest infections exacerbation frequency in this disease is related to poor quality of life scores. This was the first such publication in this field and subsequently led to the inclusion of exacerbation frequency in international guidelines for assessment of COPD in individual patients. His work on chest infections in COPD patients led to his discovery in 2008 that a well-known easily available drug erythromycin could decrease the risk of chest infections. This discovery has revolutionized the treatment of COPD and has led to increased research into its use in the related diseases of bronchiectasis and asthma. His work on COPD is well-respected he is a speaker of international renown and well-referenced by his peers. Over the 10 year period from 1999 to 2009 Professor Seemungals work has been cited by Thompson Reuters Science Watch as the 18th most cited in the field of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD worldwide and also as having the second highest citation rate per paper in the same field. Doctorate in Internal Medicine Emphasis on Research and Critical Thinking From 2007 onwards Prof Seemungal has focused on postgradu- ate training in medicine. I think that it is important to develop postgraduate-based medical research in Trinidad and Tobago in internal medicine and to focus on the training of really good internists.This has been done and so farI am happy with the quality of the graduates from the programme. In 2007 the Department of Clinical Medical Sciences started postgraduate training in Internal Medicine and has so far produced eight graduates. This programme is structured around active learning rather than lectures and emphasises principles of research critical thinking and communication skills. This focus on critical thinking and research-based philosophies recognises that medicine is evolving and that the next generation of doctors will need in-depth knowledge of science and research in addition to even better communication skills and empathy. The goal is to encourage and foster critical thinking skills we want to produce doctors who can think outside the box and base their treatment not on what an advocate for a particular product tells thembut on their own evaluation on what is best for the patient. Research in general internal medicine occurs during the third year of the programme with an emphasis on local and regional studies. The first study published out of this programme was a study of the newly created kidney transplant programme. The study found that the one-year and five-year patient survival rates are 91 and 86 respectivelystatistics which are in keeping with international standards. Other studies include the application of an internal scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality from heart attacks in Trinidad and Tobago as well as the efficacy of a simple blood test to detect rare but extremely disabling diseases of the nervous system referred to as inflammatory demyelinating diseases. BOLDly going where no man has gone before locally and regionally Respiratory disease results in a huge cost to society both in terms of disability and premature mortality as well as in direct primary and hospital healthcare. There are also indirect costs related to lost productivity. According to WHO estimates more than three million people died of COPD in 2012 worldwide. Most of the MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Medicine Adult Medicine Unit Department of Clinical Medical Sciences Tel 868 868 645 2640 ext. 2926 E-mail PROF. TERENCE SEEMUNGAL 195 information available on COPD prevalencemorbidity and mortal- ity comes from high-income countries though its incidence in the developing world is rising. Building on his earlier work in Trinidad on COPD Professor Seemungal has now started the Burden of Obstructive Lung Diseases Study BOLD in Trinidad and Tobago.The importance of this study is two-fold firstly it is the first to formally assess lung function at a national level in this country and will inform on the prevalence of COPD chronic respiratory symptoms and the burden of smoking within the country.Alsoaccurate estimates of the prevalence of this disease will be useful to anticipate the future burden of COPDtarget key risk factorsand plan for provid- ing COPD-related health services. This study is part of an international one involving over 40 countries. Professor Seemungal has encouraged his thoracic medicine colleagues at Mona Jamaica to be part of the BOLD study and he is on the organizing committee for the study in Jamaica. This will allow for comparison of chronic obstructive diseases between two geographically and historically similar countries with differing ethnicity and socioeconomic status and is of great interest internationally. Eye on the future Looking Ahead As Prof Seemungal says to paraphrase Isaac Asimov it is change continuing change inevitable change that is the dominant factor in society today. No sensible decision can be made any longer in clinical medicine without taking into account not only the medicine as it isbut the medicine as it will be. Professor Seemungal is truly a man with an eye on the future needs of our country not only medically but also in producing research that is specific to our country as well as ensuring the development of high quality future practitioners and researchers. Selected Publications TeelucksinghS.S.JaimungalL.Pinto-PereiraT.Seemungal and S. Nayak. Does insulin resistance co-exist with glucocorticoid resistance in the Metabolic Syndrome Studies comparing skin sensitivity to glucocorticoids in individuals with and without acanthosis nigricans.Cardiovascular Diabetology2012 1131. Donaldson G.C. T.A. Seemungal J.R. Hurst and J.A. Wedzicha. Detrended fluctuation analysis of peak expiratory flow and exacerbation frequency in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2012 Feb 9. Epub ahead of print PubMed PMID22323575 Sherry S. M. Rios S. Mohammed C.V. Rao P. Maharaj and T.A.R. Seemungal. Sarcoidosis in a 42 year old AfroCaribbean male who presented with a pulmonary embolism A case report and review of the literature.Carib Med J.201273218. 196 Professor Seetharaman Hariharan is presently the Professor of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicineand Programme Coordina- tor of Anaesthesia Intensive Care at the Department of Clinical Surgical SciencesFaculty of Medical SciencesThe University of the West IndiesSt.Augustine. In addition he holds the position of Deputy Dean Clinical Sciences at the faculty. He is also the Director of Operating Theatres and Honorary Consultant at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex EWMSCTrinidad.He is the current Secretary of the Medical Board of Trinidad Tobago.He is the Vice-President of Trinidad Tobago Anaesthetists AssociationExecutive Member of Bioethics Society of the English-Speaking Caribbean and a member of other learned societies including Society of Critical Care Medicine USA American Society of Anesthesiologists Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland World Institute of Pain International Association of Bioethics Indian Medical Association and others. After a basic MBBS degree he gained clinical experience in internal medicine for five years. He obtained a post-graduate degree in anaesthesiology from Kasturba Medical College Manipal ranking first in the university. He was employed with the Queen Elizabeth HospitalBarbados for five years before he joined The University of the West IndiesSt.Augustine. He was awarded an Honorary Fellowship in Critical Care Medicine by the American College of Critical Care Medicine during February 2009 for his outstanding contributions to the field of Critical Care Medicine. Research Prof. Hariharan has been the primary supervisor for 20 candidates for their postgraduate doctoral dissertation in the form of a research project and co-supervisor for another ten candidates many of these research papers have been published in peer- reviewed international journals. He has also guided and super- vised 15 undergraduate research projects which have produced many publications thus far. He mentored more than 60 students enabling their first peer-reviewed publication. He has several ongoing research projects. Prof. Hariharans primary area of academic specialty and research is evaluating risk-adjusted outcomes in intensive care units ICU and other healthcare units. What are the performance markers of a healthcare unit Traditionallymortalityhas been always considered as a metric of performance of a healthcare unit. However there can be process measures which can be influenced by infrastructural parameters which can influence the outcomes of a healthcare unit. Prof Hariharans team developed several innovative models adapting tools from the project management arena for performance appraisal as well as quality improvement of ICU and other health- care units. Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP is one such tool used in project management for benchmarking purposes which his team applied for performance measurement of ICUs as well as hospitals. This has been a pioneering and well cited work in the area of healthcare management. Is it right to interpret death in a hospital as always a failure of the healthcare system What is the concept of death in contempo- rary society What is futility of medical care What is the role of life-support technology in medically futile patients How does cost influence the decision-making process Death in the hospital is always seen as a failure of the health- care system. However there has been a cultural change globally that death is no more an event but has evolved into a process. Most people want to die at home however in the contemporary era most people die in hospitals often in ICU. Hence it is obvious that death in the hospital must not always be interpreted as a failure of the healthcare system.Many patients who are terminally ill get admitted to hospitals and ICU consume a vast amount of resources before the inevitable happens since there is a death- denying attitude spreading across the communities. With the explosive availability of media and internet people tend to believe that all lives can be saved by high-technology support available currently. Prof.Hariharans research investigated the paradigm of futility of care in ICU the factors influencing the continuation of life support measures in futile situations and how free healthcare versus fee-for-service healthcare can influence decision-making processes in these situations. How do we efficiently allocate our scarce healthcare resources Cost evaluationcost-effectiveness analysis has been another major focus of his research. He conducted cost and outcome evaluation of ICUs in Barbados Trinidad Tobago and compared MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Anaesthesia Critical Care Medicine Programme Coordinator Anaesthesia Intensive Care Unit Deputy Dean Clinical Sciences Director of Operating Theatres Consultant in Anaesthesia ICU Tel 868 662 4030 E-mail PROF. HARIHARAN SEETHARAMAN 197 them with international reports. He also conducted a cost evalua- tion of operating theatres and the wastage due to underutilization of the operating theatres. His current research includes cost-effectiveness analysis of various healthcare interventions for cardiovascular illnesses in Trinidad Tobago in an attempt to guide policy-decision makers in efficient resource allocation. In this research he estimated the Disability Adjusted Life Years DALY that could have been averted by individual levels of healthcare from primary to tertiary and high-technology interventions and the cost associated with each of these interventions. This research has established that the resource allocative efficiency will be optimal if healthcare expendi- tures are directed towards primary healthcare in order to improve the population-based health outcomes. He has submitted this research as a thesis for the award of a PhD in Health Economics in the Department of EconomicsThe University of the West IndiesSt. Augustine. Prof.Hariharan is actively conducting research in other areas of medicine which include but are not limited to Clinical Critical Care Clinical Anaesthesia Medical Ethics Pain Management General Surgery and Medical Education. He currently has more than 100 articles and 40 abstracts in peer-reviewed international journals including flagship anaesthe- siaand managementjournals.He has also authored a book and a chapter in an international textbook of anaesthesia. Prof. Hariharan is a peer-reviewer for more than 20 indexed international journals and serves as a member of the editorial board of several journals. He has also been a reviewer for abstracts at regional and international meetings. In addition he has been invited to speak at regional and international scientific meetings. His extra-curricular interests include music linguistics comparative philosophyhistory of religions and anthropology.He has contributed articles in ethics and philosophy to periodicals and newspapers. He plays the Indian drums tabla in local concerts and also South Indian classical music on the steel-pan. Selected Publications HariharanS.P.K.DeyH.S.L.MoseleyA.Y.Kumar and J.Gora .A new tool for the process-based performance measurement of multi- specialty tertiary care hospitals. International Journal of Healthcare Quality Assurance200417302312 Hariharan S. P.K. Dey D. Chen A.Y. Kumar and H.S.L.Moseley. Analytic hierarchy process for measuring and comparing the global performance of intensive care units. Journal of Critical Care 200520117125 Hariharan S. D. Chen and L. Merritt-Charles. Cost evaluation in the intensive care units of Trinidad applying the cost-blocks method an international comparison.Anaesthesia200762244249 198 Detail of Eric Williams Medical Sciences ComplexMt Hope 199 MEDICAL SCIENCES Professor of Medicine Department of Clinical Medical Sciences Tel 868 645 2640 ext. 2926 E-mail PROF. SURUJPAL TEELUCKSINGH Research Agenda The obesity epidemic and its wake the problems of Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and cardiovascular disease CVD continue to plague our region. Trinidad and Tobago has been particularly hard hit and CVD and T2DM together account for more than 50 of all mortality. The direct and indirect costs of these diseases to the nation are huge and mounting. OverweightObesity now stands at close to 60 hypertension 30 and diabetes 20 in the population 15-64 years of age. OverweightObesity prevalence has tripled among school-aged children within the last decade. There is therefore no immediate end in sight to this debilitating set of diseases. In response to these challenges we have established the Helen Bhagwansingh Diabetes Education Research and Preven- tion Institute DERPI having obtained a generous grant from the private sector to do so. Funding from this organization has already supported a doctoral candidate whose work has highlighted the emergence of T2DM among children as well as a prospective study among secondary school children. The latter has been co-sponsored by Republic Bank Limited. More recently an ambitious project aimed at early and universal screening for diabetes in pregnancy has been launched and is being under- taken with grants from the National Gas Company with supple- mental grants from Rotary St. Augustine Community Chest 2001 Carpet House. The latter project is being executed as a collaboration between DERPI and Dr Kim Mallalieu and her ICT team at the Faculty of Engineeringherself the recipient of an i2i grant from the Ministry of Planning to execute an ICT compo- nent of this project. These projects are but timely interventions to stem the rising tide of CVD and T2DM in our population. Hopefully these will prove meaningful and impactful. Selected Publications Bahadursingh Sarasvati Catherine Mungalsingh Terence Seemungal Surujpal Teelucksingh. Acanthosis nigricans in type 2 diabetes prevalence correlates and potential as a simple clinical screening tool - a cross-sectional study in the Caribbean. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome. 2014 6 77. Yvonne Ann Batson Surujpal Teelucksingh Rohan G Maharaj Brian N Cockburn. A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of obesity and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes among school children in Trinidad West Indies. Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2014 34 3 178-183. Batson Yvonne Ann Surujpal Teelucksingh Rohan Maharaj Virendra Singh Sasha Balkaran and Brian Cockburn. Screening for diabetes in schoolchildren in TrinidadWest Indies. Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2013 33 1 37-41 200 201 Introduction The Faculty of Law at St. Augustine was established in April 2012. Law has been taught at The University of the West IndiesCave Hill since 1970. Previously students completed one year at St. Augus- tine and then were transferred to Cave Hill in Barbados to complete the second and third year of the law degree. However students can now complete all three years of the Bachelor of Laws LLB degree programme at The UWI St. Augustine Campus Trinidad and Tobago. The primary objective of the Faculty is to provide an academic qualification which is a compulsory prereq- uisite to professional legal training for lawyers in the Common- wealth Caribbean. Research Impact Statement The Faculty of Law at St. Augustine is research-oriented and has a number of ongoing research projects that impact the develop- ment of local regional and international laws. The overall impact of the research work done in the Faculty of Law not only promotes quality legal education in the region but also promotes certainty and clarity in several areas of law leads towards academic discussions and public awareness of critical legal issues acts as a driving force for law reform and is sometimes cited as a part of the law reform process. The University of the West Indies Tel 868662 2002 ext. 82039 82040 E-mail THE FACULTY OF LAW Faculty Research Overview 202 Research interests and publications of the academic staff include areas highlighted below as Labour Law OffshoreInternational Financial Law Comparative Law Public Law Human Rights. The Dean of the Faculty of Law Professor Rose-Marie Belle Antoinehas researched and published widely in the above areas as well as in other areas of law. Constitutional Law Caribbean Human Rights Law Rights of Indigenous Peoples HIV the Law Dr Arif Bulkan Deputy Dean has conducted research that focuses on democracythe rule of law and constitutionalism in the Caribbean the rights of indigenous persons environmental law and Caribbean human rights law. He has also provided expert advice as a consultant on human rights environmental law indigenous law and HIVAIDS and the law to regional and international non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations and has worked in law and policy reform in the areas of indigenous rights natural resource extraction laws and health and human rights. Some of his recent publications include The limits of constitution re-making in the Common- wealth Caribbean Towards the Perfect Nation. Canadian Journal of Human Rights 2013 2 1 79-115. The poverty of equality. Jurisprudence in the Common- wealth Caribbean. Equal Rights Review 2013 10 11-32. Disentangling the sources and nature of indigenous rights A critical examination of common law jurisprudence International and Comparative Law Quarterly 2012 61 823-53. Protection of Traditional Knowledge Traditional Cultural Expressions and Genetic Resources Dr Sharon B. Le Gall has been engaged as a consultant by the World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO and as a member of a Caribbean Community CARICOM Working Group to develop a legal framework for protection of traditional knowledge traditional cultural expressions and genetic resources in the Caribbean. She was also a Traditional Knowledge Consultant engaged by WIPOwith a team of international consult- ants to develop a WIPO Intellectual Property Strategies Framework for Developing Countries. Some of her publications include Intellectual Property Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Property Protection of Cultural Signifiers in the Caribbean and the Americas Routledge London and New York 2014 Featured Title in Intellectual Property for Routledge in January 2014and a part of the Routledge Research in Intellectual Property Seriesand Establishing a Policy Framework for the Regional Protection of Traditional Knowledge Traditional Cultural Expressions and Genetic Resources The Caribbean Context30 pages. Presenta- tion at the WIPO-WTO Colloquium for Teachers of Intellectual Propertyin GenevaSwitzerland2012. Oil and Gas Law Energy and Renewable Energy Law Environ- mental Law Mrs. Alicia Elias-Roberts Deputy Dean is involved in a number of legal research projects that focus on a range of legal topics and outreach programmes. Some of her recent conference papers and publications that will undoubtedly impact law reform and promote public awareness of critical legal issues include Coastal and Marine Environmental Damage in the Caribbean Challenges of Sustainable Development. College of the Bahamas Oil ExplorationOil Spills and Environmental Damage Conference held in Nassau Bahamas in June 2014. Legal and Policy Regulation of Marine Pollution in the Caribbean A case study of Trinidad and TobagoCollege of the Bahamas Oil Exploration Oil Spills and Environmental Damage Conference held in Nassau Bahamas in June 2014. Legal Reflections on the Guyana-Venezuela Maritime Issue Carib- bean Journal of International Relations Diplomacy. Mural commemorating 50 years of IndependenceThe Parliament of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Grey Friars church Port of Spain MRS. ALICIA ELIAS-ROBERTS DEPUT Y DEAN Administrative Law Mrs. Alicia Elias-Roberts also focused her research on administra- tive law and facilitated a workshop on Administrative Law Princi- ples and Practices for Senior and Middle Managersat the Montser- rat Public Law Seminar Feb.-March 2014. The impact of the Public Law Seminar was to promote public awareness of the law and potentially lead to less judicial review actions against the Govern- ment of Montserrat or at least lessen the possibility of the court holding that the government officials acted unlawfully.The impact of the seminar was to strengthen the knowledge and capacity of the participants who were senior and middle managers who exercise administrative functions. With the knowledge of adminis- trative principles it is intended that the participants would exercise their discretion in a manner that is within the confines of the law. Mrs. Elias-Roberts also recently published on this area A Compara- tive analysis of the UK and Commonwealth Caribbean approach towards Legitimate Expectation. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 2013 391143-152 The Rights of Children and the Domestic Application of International Human Rights Law. Timothy Affonsos research on this area led to his recently published article Delaying the Inevitable A Discussion of the Possible Abolition of Corporal Punishment of Children at Home in Trinidad and Tobago.CLRJ 2010 31. Contract law Timothy Affonso also focused his research on this area and has recently published a book Contract Law A Commonwealth Caribbean Case Book XLibris Publishing 19 November 2013.ISBN-10 1493127365. Female Reproductive Issues and Health Law Ms Afiya Frances research has focused on health law and discrimina- tion generally.Some of Ms.Frances publication on this area includes Eugenics Then and Now Gender and Sexuality Law Online Columbia Law School 2010. The Danger Of A Dogmatic Approach To Restraining Improper Self-Referrals To Physician-Owned Specialty Hospitals - Throwing Out The Baby With The Bath Water.Forthcoming Company Law Law of Corporate Management Corporate Insolvency Mr.John JeremieSC and Dr Chumah Amaefules primary research interests lie in commercial law. Dr. Amaefules research focus also includes international trade and finance law international sale of goods banking and international banking law and practice. Some of Dr.Amaefules conference presentations include Recklessness of the beneficiary in presenting third party forger- iesan exception to the principle of autonomyPaper presented to the School of LawUniversity of Birmingham 2012. Autonomy principle and contractual restrictions on a beneficiarys right to draw on a credit. Birmingham Law School University of Birmingham Annual Research Seminar Series2011. Public International Law Several academic members are currently involved in research that focuses on public international law. 203 204 Dean Rose-Marie Belle Antoine Professor of Labour Law and Offshore Financial Law is an attorney Cambridge Fellow and award-winning author whose career embodies excellence in research combined with an outstanding record of transforma- tional public service in the region and beyond. She has earned an international reputation as a leading scholarinternational consult- ant and activist. Her scholarship has been acknowledged for its quality and depth and its diversitycreativity and breadth. Awards and Posts In 2006Antoine became the first person from the Faculty of Law to win the prestigious Vice-Chancellors Award for Excellence in Research. In 2013 she created history by winning the Vice Chancellors award for Excellence againthis time for Public Service. Other awards include being honoured by the Commonwealth Foundation as an eminent scholar the broad-based UK Emerald Literati Prize for outstanding publication and two awards from the Guild of Undergraduate Students for Courage and Dedication to Students and Outstanding Service. In 2008 she was named as one of the UWI Outstanding 60 under 60 Academics. Professor Antoine was the Distinguished Goodwin Scholar for Nova SE University Florida the 2011 Washburn USA Visiting Scholaradjunct professor at the DePauland Case Western univer- sitiesUSAand has lectured at CambridgeMcGill and Oxford. Antoine won the Oxford Commonwealth Scholarship earning the doctorate in law at Oxford University won the Cambridge Pegasus Scholarship obtaining the LLM and holds the LLB from The UWI. She also holds diplomas and certificates with distinction in international human rights from the International Institute of Human Rights in StrasbourgFrance.She was formerly Programme Director and founder of the LLM programmeCave-Hill and a legal officer at the ILO in Geneva. Publication Record Dean Antoine has written twelve books and numerous articles in international legal journals on varied subjects. The prestigious Oxford University Press published her pioneering texts Confidenti- ality in Offshore Financial Law and Trusts and Tax Issues in Offshore Financial Law. These and her first book Commonwealth Caribbean Law and Legal Systems Routledge CavendishLondonare used by universities and practitioners in Europe the USA UK Asia and Africa.She is the co-author and editor of the Unfair Dismissal Digest ILO Geneva Legal Issues in Offshore Finance Randle Publishers and HIV and Human Rights. She has contributed chapters to leading texts such as the Legal Systems of the World Encyclopedia ABCCLIO USA Law and Employment edited by the Nobel Prize Winner in Economics James Heckman and Human Resource Development and Workplace Governance in the Caribbean Randle. Antoines research and scholarship have been lauded interna- tionally and are widely cited by international jurists authors PhD students in leading universities international organizations UN ReportsParliaments andimportantly for a legal scholarthe courts. Her publications are utilized in every continent reaching beyond legal practitioners to include environmentalists social scientists and others. Her work has been described by leading international jurists and scholars as originalinsightful and amazing.She super- vises graduate theses as far afield as Cambridge Australia and reviews articles in international journals. She introduced several new areas to The UWIs curriculum including Discrimination Law Public Service Law International Human Rights Offshore Law and HIV Law the latter making The UWI a leader in this regard. Antoine emphasises a multi-disciplinary and social engineer- ing approach to law that informs more concretely protected civil rights. She embraces the philosophy of Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen that human rights enhances and does not diminish tangible economic development. Her work in the law disciplines of labour finance health and trade is enriched by and mirrors her human rights commitment. Public Service Informed by Scholarship Professor Antoine engages in significant public service and consul- tancy work which is deeply informed by her scholarship. She competes successfully against other international experts to lead projects and has served as advisorwhether as Team Leader or sole Consultant to all of the governments of CARICOM to others such as the UKVenezuelaUSA and Canadaand to several international organizations including the EU OAS IADB World Bank CARICOM OECSUNICEFILOUNIFEMPanCap and UNDCP. She has also authored Policy Reports on several regional issues including Discrimination Mutual Legal Assistance Womens Rights Money- LaunderingLabour LawFree MovementHIVFinancial LawHealth Anti-Corruption and Reform of Constitutions the Judiciary Public ServicePolice and Child Juvenile Justice. She drafted important legislation on diverse subjects includ- ing the financial sector health public service education child justicelabourfinancial sectorhuman trafficking and trusts andas LAW Professor of Labour Law and Offshore Financial Law Dean Faculty of Law Tel 868 662 2002 ext. 82039 E-mail PROF. ROSE-MARIE BELLE ANTOINE 205 ILO Consultantdrafted a Labour Code for Saint Lucia. She trains Caribbean judiciaryBar Associationspublic servants and private sector professionals including employers organiza- tions unions and medical practitioners. She is a resource person on HIV law for CAREC PANCAP UNAIDS and others and is described by CARICOM as a change agentfor HIVsupervising and shaping model laws on HIV and initiating the thrust toward broad anti-discrimination laws. She served as a resource person for the Saint Lucia Constitu- tional Reform Committee and supports many NGOs. Governments and international organizations have relied on Professor Antoine to help shape policy.In 2009 PANCAPCARICOM asked her to give the feature address to the Annual Assembly to redirect the discourse on legal reform on HIV a goal which was achieved. Similarly the CDB and others have relied on Antoines scholarship and advocacy to steer and develop the discourse on international offshore finance in the region. Barbados included her as their only non-national member of the OECD High Level Delegation to the Consultations on International Finance as did the UK and TCI governments. Her CARICOM Harmonization in Labour Law Report 1992 serves as the blueprint for the CARICOMILO model labour laws and the catalyst for law reform in the region. Her work for the UK government in developing an appropriate legislative agenda for the Turks and Caicos Islands TCI reforming laws on important areas of social concern is credited publicly with laying the foundation for the TCIs return to democratic elections. Antoines 2009 CARICOM Report on Law Freedom of Move- ment serves as the background document for continuing the CSMEs integration agenda. She formulated the Action Plan for Trinidad and Tobago to prevent financial crime and corruption. As Expert Delegate she presented to international bodies including UN Global Commission on HIV UN General Assembly OAS General Assembly on Anti-Corruption Labour Ministers of Latin America and the Caribbean CARICOM governmental meetings on Health Labour and Integration. She regularly and willingly engages in public education events on a wide array of important legal issues. Professor Antoine has therefore contributed an important share to the practical realisation of the aims of Caribbean legal development by her leading research and various projects. As a result of this scholarship and consultancy workshe is described by governments international sources and others as the foremost labour law expert in Labour Law in the region and the leading authority in the region in International Financial Law and HIV Law. Appointments In recognition of her scholarship Antoine was appointed to distinguished international boards including her unanimous election as an Honorary Member of the worldwide law body the Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners in 2012 and the only Caribbean person to be so honoured. Honorary Membership is awarded to those who have made a unique and exceptional contribution to the field of trusts and estates ... She was appointed to the Advisory Board of the Interna- tional Journal of Legislative Drafting and Law Reform. She sits on the Advisory Committee of Small Jurisdictions Graduate Program Brookes University Oxford the only Caribbean member. As OAS Special Representative she drafted socio- economic Indicators for the San Salvador Protocol and is the CARICOM Chair on HIV and Migration. In 2011though holding Trinidad Tobago Saint Lucia citizen- shipshe had the honour of being nominated by Belize and subse- quently elected by OAS states as a Commissioner on the Inter- American Commission on Human Rights Washington. She is the Rapporteur for Persons of African Descent and Discrimination Rapporteur for Indigenous Peoples and First Vice President. She was the inaugural Head of the EconomicSocial and Cultural Rights Unit at the IACHROAS and leads on HIV and disability issues addressing the World AIDs Conference in 2012. A partner in the firm Anthony Antoine she was on the winning legal team on the first case before the CCJ in its original jurisdictionon regional trade. 206 The UWI South Campus currently under construction will host Faculty of Law 207 The UWI Sport and Physical Activity Centre SPEC From classrooms to laboratoriesto farmsroadways coastlines and playing fieldsUWI research continues to advance knowledge and impact lives. c Published by the Office of the Campus Principal The University of the West IndiesSt Augustine Campus Trinidad TobagoWest Indies 2015